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Black Leadership Analysis

This is an unofficial Spiral Dynamics blog. It is not endorsed by D. Beck PhD.

Ancestral Reverence in Shadow Work

Part of Buddhist and African spirituality is reverence for your ancestors. In both frameworks, ancestors provide guidance and assistance. In addition to the help they can provide, people that adhere to these spiritualities use ancestral reverence as a way to recognize and thank our forebears for their sacrifice. The practice allows for a person’s ancestors to move through them. Reverence for ancestors will also aid in coming to grips with yourself as part of an unbroken continuum of experience. The continuum stretches back to the beginning of time and forward until the end of time. The continuation happens whether an individual has children or not. The ancestors will help a person to integrate aspects of their personality.

My ancestral reverence practice occurs after my daily meditation. After meditation, I bow, the Buddhist term is half-prostration, and imagine how my ancestors looked. In meditation, a person should move away from using words and attempt to concentrate on first order sensations. I chose as my ancestral image to be a slave. For me, a female image is more natural and more soothing. I am not sure why.

I feel Black Americans need to come to terms with our slave ancestry. The first step for us was coming to grips with our African ancestry. Black Americans were told the pre-colonial Africans were primitive and lacked culture. Those myths have been debunked, and most blacks understand that African civilization was advanced.

I viewed my slave ancestry as something I have to overcome. My slave ancestors sacrificed for me to be here. I now owe them being successful. If I am unsuccessful, their sacrifice was for nothing. I suspect many other people feel the same way.

What I was missing was slaves had full lives in spite of the oppression. The slaves sought wisdom, savored the few pleasures they had, and found love. I am a product of them finding love. When I came to grips with that, I could allow myself to live a full life. My life doesn’t solely have to be about being successful. My slave ancestors showed me how to have a full life in spite of oppression. I owe them being happy, not successful.

Anyone that follows my blog knows I have completed extensive research on the Pullman Porters. While doing research, I stumbled across many stories of the abusive treatment the porter’s received. Porters were called every racial slur. One of the most frequently used was calling all porters “George.” The name came because a man named George Pullman owned the Pullman company. During slavery, slaves were named after their master. Most passengers, especially from the south saw the porters as slaves and treated them accordingly.

These stories triggered me emotionally. Many times in my career I did not speak up when I or someone around me suffered a racial injustice. Many of my black co-workers expressed that I was extremely passive. I had a rocky start to my career and felt I needed to concentrate on the “nuts and bolts” of the job. I avoided unnecessary conflict because I had very little experience and could be replaced easily if things come to a head. I was fired from my first job due to having a racial conflict, and I did not want to repeat this pattern.

I often second guess my decision on this job. I regret not standing up for myself and others more. I have a few instances, in particular, I regret very much. I justify it to myself by saying I had to take care of business. I needed to hold on to the job and gain experience. Deep down I feel not only did I not stand up for myself, but I also did not stand up for my race.

I contrast my struggles with what the Pullman Porters accepted from the company and what they were able to accomplish in the field of Civil Rights. Even if a porter was completely passive, he was part of an organization, if he joined the union, which laid the foundation for the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement. If he was kowtowing, he kowtowed for the struggle. If a few racist white people laughed about making a spectacle of a porter, who cares? The porter laid the foundation for me.

I am not saying I have accomplished anything anywhere near as significant as the Pullman Porters. However, progress is not about individual achievement. Progress is about community achievement. I could get the opportunity to redeem myself, someone in a future generation could redeem me. Everyday I decide if the cumulative affects of my actions are positive or negative. Being black is not about winning every fight; no one wins every fight. The goal is to have a larger balance of positive action than negative actions. Your positive action balance is tallied every day. In each moment you create your legacy.

I recently, re-read Che Guevara’s Motorcycle Diaries. In the book, he recounts a story of meeting a black man in Peru that reported the murder of his friend. Below is the quote:

“Until this point, we had been traveling in the same truck as the black guy who had reported the murder. At one of the stops along the road, he bought us a meal and throughout it, lectured us on coffee, papaya, and the black slaves, of whom his grandfather had been one. He said this quite openly but [in] it you could detect a note of shame in his voice. In any case, Alberto and I agreed to absolve him of any guilt in the murder of his friend.”

The man from Peru had an intellectual understanding of the history of his people. The man did not have emotional acceptance, hence the shame. A person must foster both the intellectual understanding and the emotional acceptance. I feel that we as black people have a difficult time with the fact we have had to and still have to acquiesce to injustice. It is a survival method forged by our slave ancestors and is often still useful. Black people hate to admit that they had to acquiesce and others around them had to acquiesce.

The shame of acquiescence causes black people to vilify many our mainstream Civil Rights leaders as Uncle Toms. Many hate that A. Philip Randolph had to say the racist American Federation of Labor leader and L. Johnson was a greater friends to blacks than Lincoln. He was able to accomplish more than any other Civil Rights leader. Randolph was not a dogmatist; he was a pragmatist. He built relationships and allied with those he needed, not those with similar views. He separated the needs of the group and race from his personal need for pride. The same goes for Ed Nixon who organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Nixon was also pragmatic and extremely successful. He is now often viewed as a Tom. These men should be revered as examples of successful leadership.

I think the vilification of Nixon and Randolph would lessen if black people came to grips with their issues with acquiescence. Once a person accepts they did not directly confront the racism they encountered they can accept the behavior in other people. When can then realistically evaluate the sum of all actions and determine if the leader was successful or not. It is true many leaders acquiesce and get no benefit to themselves and the race at large. Acquiesce without results should be vilified. However, if you can prove the leader made the material conditions of black life better, then give the leader the credit they deserve.

To recap, ancestral reverence will help to integrate various aspects of a person’s personality. Once a person has a better understanding of themselves and their psychology, they will reevaluate many leaders from a more logical standpoint. Often we don’t like in leaders aspects of ourselves. As a community, doing shadow work will help us to choose the most suitable leaders.

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Analysis: Asa Philip Randolph

What He Has Right

Randolph’s treatise on lynching was superb. He understands and relays to the audience the underlying cause of lynchings is economic, not racist. By being able to see the bigger picture, the audience can understand the manipulation. The treatise on lynching illustrates how race issues are rooted in economics.

Randolph did understand the causes of World War I. Many modern historians point to the German colonial expansion was a catalyst for the War. Also, the war can be a boost for the economy and did boost the economy in America and Europe. The war utilized idol materials and workers.

He also understands that global peace will only come after all people are independent and self-agentic. He realizes that the non-European countries are not ready for full independence as of yet. However, the European countries should nurture and bring the countries along.

Randolph’s ultimate plan of bringing together black and white workers will work to the benefit of all involved. Uniting the workers will reduce the number of people willing to cross picket lines and gives the union more power. However, he also understands people will not integrate without laws forcing them to do so. He knows the failure to comply should lead to a loss of funding or political power.

The march toward fair hiring practices will require sustained action. He encouraged the crowd to take the energy back home. He also tutored younger leaders such as Martin Luther King. Randolph understood the process would not only extend his whole life, but it will extend through many lifetimes.

Randolph is correct that he and more moderate Civil Rights leaders are the voice of most Black Americans. Only Dr. King can rival Randolph’s list of accomplishments. Integration is the only way forward for a people systematically disenfranchised. Blacks should not leave or separate. Blacks were an integral part of the building of the country and should reap all the same rewards.

What He Has Wrong

Peace is not a sufficient motivator to get the European countries to facilitate the growth of Non-European countries. The Orange meme, which most European countries were operating at the time, has no reason to help other countries grow. In the Orange meme, the European countries want to have as much status and resources as possible. If profit sharing and knowledge sharing happens, the European countries must give up their status. Here are a list of reasons why the European nations will never facilitate third world growth

1. The European nations want to keep the resources to themselves
2. The European nations want to keep labor cheap
3. The European nations do not see the natives as intellectual equals
4. Admitting that change is needed proves that the European countries were wrong in the past

Full equability requires a shift in consciousness. No council full of countries at Orange level consciousness will perpetuate the current system. That doesn’t mean that a council will not at least ensure the world does not regress. However, profound psychological work will be needed by a large group of individuals before any real progress occurs. At the time Randolph was writing this treatise very few people had made the connection between spirituality, politics, and psychology. The modern day analyst, especially the integralist, can see where this philosophy is lacking.

His framing of President Johnson is overly rose-colored. It is important for the reader to know that Johnson was a Dixiecrat and supporter of segregation until he became president. Most other historians recount how afraid most black people were when Johnson took over the Presidency. Johnson did sign some of the most important Civil Rights legislation. However, the motivation was more political than moral. A separate blog post is needed to give this subject justice.

It is also clear that Dr. King was under FBI surveillance during his entire career. Johnson had to be aware of this fact. To say Dr. King and Johnson had good relations is simply not accurate.

The Democratic party absorbed most of the Civil Rights leadership of the 1960’s. Randolph knew he had to keep his political allies to push forth more legislation. Randolph was also Vice President of the AFL-CIO. The AFL-CIO was strongly allied with the Democratic party. Randolph was being pressured on all sides to keep a positive relationship with the Democrats.

Where is A. Philip Randolph on the Spiral

A Philip Randolph is in the Orange Meme Integrationist. He is a Democratic Socialist that supports First Order Change. Randolph saw race as a subset of the larger issue of economic inequality. In his work, he concentrated on American blacks. Even though he did have a world perspective, which is usually Orange Meme, his work was all in America. Randolph was a power player in the Democratic Party for decades and had recognition internationally. He concentrated on America.

At the beginning of his career, he wanted Second Order change and supported the revolution in Russia. He saw the treatment of minorities in the USSR and determined Communism was severely lacking. Just because he felt the system was superior that did not mean change was not needed. Randolph demonstrates pragmatism in action.

I saw no change in values, so there was no shift up or down the Spiral in Randolph’s public life. He is centered in Orange the entire time.

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March on Washington Movement

After the departure from the National Negro Congress, A. Philip Randolph tours the country with his Brotherhood Vice-President Milton Webster. Webster has the idea of a mass demonstration in Washington. He suggests 10,000 people Marching on Washington. [1] Randolph closes his speeches with a call for a mass protest. The idea spreads like wildfire. In 1941, many are calling for Randolph to go through with the march. Black people have been excluded from the Defense Industry too long. Randolph also wants to end Jim Crow in the military.

Randolph started the March on Washington Movement to create a new coalition to create a mass demonstration to force the government to end segregation in the military and defense industry. He allies with the NAACP, Federal Council on Negro Affairs, and National Urban League. [2]All groups are moderate Civil Rights organizations that wanted first-order change.

Mary McLeod Bethune headed The Federal Council on Negro Affairs. She was a Washington insider that had unprecedented access to the Roosevelts. She was the highest paid government official at the time. [6] Bethune and Eleanor Roosevelt were close friends. Bethune received inside knowledge on how the President thought and had an advocate for blacks that is extremely close to the President.

Walter White headed the NAACP at this time. White was another Washington insider and had several meetings on the topic of desegregation in the defense industry. [6] In later years, Randolph and White become rivals and tell conflicting stories about who convinced Roosevelt to sign the executive order. Ultimately, both men had influence on Roosevelt. White pressured from inside the White House. Randolph pressured from outside the White House.

He now needs to ensure those that want second-order change, the Communist, are excluded from the group. He calls for only black people to come to the march. At the time, few whites outside the Communist Party had interest. There were very few black people in the Communist Party because they abandoned the cause of Civil Rights during World War II. Calling for only black people to be at the march was a shrewd method to dissolve the threat of Communist agitation. There is still bad-blood between the two groups since the National Negro Congress split and the Communist could use a disturbance at the march to reduce A. Philip Randolph’s power.

Roosevelt never said he was against desegregation, but he did not actively support Civil Rights. He needed Southern support to pass and continue the New Deal. To keep the Southerners support, he purposely excluded domestic and agricultural workers from New Deal benefits. At the time 60% of black people were domestic and farm workers. Roosevelt also refused to back an anti-lynching bill in 1938.[3] No matter what Roosevelt personally believed, he would always act with political motives.

The USA had not entered World War II in the summer of 1941. Roosevelt wanted to aid the allies in not only supplies but soldiers. He also was framing the war as a struggle against tyranny and genocide. A mass demonstration against racism would call into question America’s moral authority in the war. Roosevelt could not risk a civil disturbance at this critical time.

Eleanor Roosevelt, heavily influenced by Bethune, calls A. Philip Randolph to discuss postponing the march. Randolph agrees to meet with Roosevelt, other Civil Rights leaders, and various cabinet members. According to Randolph in a 1968 interview, Roosevelt was chiefly worried about a civil disturbance at the march. [4] Roosevelt initially proposed an executive order to outlaw segregation in the government contracted defense industry in return for calling off the march. Randolph would not agree. He demanded that the government include non-contract defense industry. Randolph is only willing to postpone not stop the march. Roosevelt balked at first but ultimately capitulated. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8802 two days before the march. [4]

Randolph makes a unilateral decision to call off the march. [2]It is possible he did not have enough time to consult with the rest of his team. It could be that he thought the team would not agree unless the order included the military. Many historians chastise Randolph for unilaterally calling off the march. Originally the March on Washington Movement was a collaboration among equals; now it was Randolph’s group.

There is another group of historians that believe Randolph would not have been able to make the march happen. [6] Washington was a segregated city at that time, that meant few accommodations for housing and restricted access by rail. Because many of the rural areas around DC did not have black newspapers, word of the March spread in major cities across the country not to blacks within driving distance. It is possible that Randolph knew he would not be able to gather his 100,000 people.

Randolph has only postponed the march he has not called it off altogether. He now has branches in Los Angeles, Chicago, Trenton, Milwaukee, Washington, Cleveland, Richmond, St. Louis, Atlanta, Savannah, St. Paul, and Jacksonville. [2] The new national movement was successful in creating demonstrations in New York, Chicago, and St. Louis.

Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practice Committee, FEPC, to enforce desegregation in the armed forces. He appoints Southerner Mark Ethridge to oversee the committee. Ethridge was a staunchly believed segregation had moral and practical justification. [2] The FEPC has no authority to punish the contractors or government agencies if they are found not obeying the executive order. The result of the FEPC is only documentation that segregation is happening. [2]The FEPC ended due to government cuts in 1943.

The FEPC did have practical reasons for not punishing desegregation. The country was in the middle of supplying and fighting (by the end of 1941) a war effort. Stopping a production line or pulling a contract could get people killed on the front line. However, there could have been measures taken that would not shut down the line, such as disqualification in future contracts.

Randolph continues to use the threat of a mass protest to pressure the government into desegregating the military. To execute a massive protest, he needed more organizational infrastructure. In the 1942 conference, organizational ground rules are made. The first is no money from whites. The MOWM can only serve blacks if it is funded by blacks. The second was a complete denouncement of communism. The third was all local branches come together for the March on Washington.[6] Other than the March on Washington local offices had autonomy.

The institutionalization of the MOWM causes the NAACP to worry that they could lose membership and funding. The NAACP denounced the MOWM as being exclusionary to whites. Turning the NAACP into an enemy caused the most problems with the Washington local branch. The NAACP did everything to discourage membership. The DC local was found to have no members in a 1943 audit. [6]The lack of membership was partly due to poor management, but denouncement by the local NAACP did not help the matter. [6] If there is no support in the city in which the protest takes place, there is no reason to think a protest can happen.

The Left criticized the MOWM first. The Left felt the executive order did not go far enough because there was no penalty for non-compliance. The second issue was a fear that Randolph was working to gain a foot into the Democratic Party on the backs of his people. Blacks would then have total loyalty to the Democratic Party. People do not bait hooks for caught fish. From the extreme Left the criticism was Randolph was not attempting to overthrow an inherently racist system, he was just trying to get black people included in the system at a deeper level.

On the right, there was the charge that a mass demonstration is too risky. The summer of 1943 birthed two race riots in Detroit and New York. Both ended with dozens of blacks killed or injured. The Ohio newspaper,Cleveland Call, urged Randolph to concentrate on local protest at factories. The paper cited numerous instances of local protest working without the risk or cost of a national demonstration. [7]

Randolph wanted the march to be all black to reduce the likelihood of infiltration by saboteurs and to promote black pride. Having an all black march would combat the inferiority complex in blacks. [6] If blacks cannot do anything on their own they will never have the confidence to compete in America. Having the MOWM funded totally by blacks allowed for total control of the movement. Randolph reiterates an old saying “there is no instance of people… winning freedom who did not have to pay for it in treasure, blood, and tears, and since who pays the fiddler calls the time.” [6]

Ultimately, a movement can’t be funded by people with no money. Funding from the NAACP dries up when the MOWM is thought to be working for a permanent organization. In 1942, Randolph admitted to a lieutenant that the movement does not have a dime. [6] In 1943, Randolph asks the Executive Committee for personal loans to keep the movement afloat. [6] The organization holds itself together until 1947 with no paid staff members.

The first organization dedicated to nonviolent direct action was The March on Washington Movement. The NAACP focused on winning cases; the National Urban League groomed politicians, the MOWM got people in the streets across the nation to protest. The MOWM successfully picketed an arms manufacturer in St. Louis along with other local victories. The blueprint will be taken up in the 1960’s by Randolph protege Dr. Martin Luther King.

As stated earlier, Executive Order 8802 did not desegregate the military. Truman will have to implement Executive Order 9981 in 1948 and Secretary McNamara issuing Defense Directive 5120.36 in 1963. However, it was a crucial first step. After EO 8802 the number of black civil servants triple and the number of blacks in the defense industry went from 8.4% to 12.5%. [6] Desegregation would never happen overnight. It took many people of all races working together in many different manners. The MOWM created a template for non-violence that will be used for the entire Civil Rights Movement.

One can not be sure why Randolph left his earlier pragmatism behind. It is reasonable to assume he was terrified of communist infiltration. It is also sensible to think he needed an all-black movement to be successful to salve his ego. It’s hard for a person to share a victory with people he does not trust. I assume there were some shadow elements within Randolph that caused some self-sabotage. Randolph also lacked a lieutenant in the MOWM effort. Milton Webster was a pragmatic Vice-President of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Randolph had a few female secretaries, but due to money issues, none stayed long enough to influence the movement. History will never understand Randolph’s lapse in judgment.

Sources
1. Rising From the Rails by Larry Tye
2. “The Negro March On Washington Movement in the World War II Period” https://theanarchistlibrary.org
3. “Race and FDR’s New Deal” http://www.shmoop.com
4. Thomas Baker Interview with A. Philip Randolph October 29,1968
5. New York Amsterdam News August 7, 1943
6.“It’s A New Kind of Militancy” by David Lucander
7. Cleveland Call Sept 12, 1942
8. “Harry Truman and the Desegregation of the Military” by Joy A. Reid http://www.thegrio.com

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Basic Philosophy of Asa Philip Randolph

Lynching

In 1917, Randolph and his business partner, Chandler Owen, wrote a treatise called The Truth About Lynchings. Lynchings was a way to punish people or entire groups without a trial. Lynchings were very common in the South, and the victims were mostly black.

Randolph and Owen created the treatise to combat the myth that black men having sex with white women cause lynchings. Often interracial relationships ended with an accusation of rape. The whites of the town would rally and kill the offending black man.

To prove the cause of lynchings is not racial, Randolph and Owen show the stats for victims of lynching. Around 35% of victims of lynching were white, and only 34% followed a rape charge. There were black men lynched for dressing well, standing up to whites that disrespected them and attempting to vote. Often black men were just randomly killed. Even when a black man was accused of rape, he did not even know his white accuser. The cause of lynching is much deeper than race.

The writers contend all the victims were extremely poor and often exploited for labor. Most times blacks moved into an area and provided incredibly cheap labor. The skilled labor, generally white, would then need to run these people out of town or kill them. A mob would form to kill one man in hopes the rest would leave out of fear. If that did not work, an attack on the entire black population would follow. That was the story of lynchings in the North.

In the South, lynching provided cause for a constant state of fear in the black community. The state of fear impeded organizing and protesting for equal pay. The fear keeps the old exploitative Capitalist system alive, and the South stayed one step away from slavery.

The capitalists perpetuate racial fears and cause lynchings. The wealthy control the newspapers and can create whatever narrative they want. The public believes the narrative, and the skilled workers are pitted against non-skilled workers. Both have their attention diverted from the real cause of suffering.

Ultimately, exploitative Capitalism led to lynching. Instating socialism can correct the problem. The first order of business was to have all trade unions integrated. Blacks also have to begin to support trade unionism. It is insane to be against trade unionism because most black people are in the working class. In spite of the discrimination in the Union, the fundamental principles of Unionism are sound.

International Affairs

Randolph wrote a treatise on how the United States should handle World War I in 1917 with fellow socialist Chandler Owen. The duo was instrumental in the formulation of socialist thought in the black community. For the reader to fully understand the essay a summary of World War I is needed.

World War I started in 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne. A terrorist organization known as the Black Hand carried out the assassination, and the group had connections to Serbia. Serbia had recently gained full independence from the Ottoman Empire with the help of Russia. The Serbians wanted to liberate various Slavic countries from Austria – Hungary.

Austria – Hungary declared war on Serbia to avenge the killing of the heir. Serbia had a mutual protection pact with Russia. An alliance between France, Russia, and England had existed for decades. The entry of Germany on the side of Austria – Hungary culminated in “The war to end all wars.”

At the beginning of 1917, the United States was not yet in the war. A telegram from Germany was intercepted by the British. The telegram offered Mexico aid if Mexico declared war on the United States to reclaim land lost during the Mexican-American War. The telegram is now known as the Zimmerman Telegram. Public opinion swayed from isolationism to interventionism upon publication of the Zimmerman Telegram. The USA declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917.

Even though America was justified in entering the war, there were many issues getting soldiers half-way across the world. America could not reinforce European Allied force at speed to move the front line. 1917 was a year of stalemate. America was dumping tons of resources in a war with no end in sight. The government instituted the draft. America will solve all these logistic issues and by 1918 ten thousand new soldiers will be sent to France a day. The Allies will begin to push the Axis Powers back, and the war will end in the summer of 1918.

The stress of the war was not only taking a toll on America. Russia was also near starvation by 1917. The harsh living conditions for the average Russian resulted in a revolution to overthrow the Czar. The new government was the first Socialist government in the world. The new Russian government scales back on the war effort. A treaty between German and Russian will be signed in March of 1918.

Randolph and Owen’s joint treatise Terms of Peace and the Darker Races details how to the major European powers can gain peace with each other and with the non-whites of the world. The treatise takes the position that the war was not intended to avenge the death of Ferdinand. The war was to halt German progress in acquiring new territory in Africa and the Pacific. At the beginning of the war, Germany had colonies in East Africa, West Africa, Northern part of Papua New Guinea, and various islands in the Pacific. The German colonial growth threatened French and German power in Africa and beyond.

The second cause of the war was a surplus of military goods that was going idol. Capitalists run Europe and want to ensure resources go to use and generate profit. However, once the excess of military assets has been exhausted the European powers will end the war because there is not profit motive. The following paragraph is a good summary.

“ After the goods produced shall have been used. There is no gain in having the war continue, but on the contrary, the war’s continuance would be a substantial debt upon capitalist. The capitalist…sell immense amount of goods. When the war ends, the government owes them huge debts. It is necessary for the soldiers to become laborers now to pay this debt. Hence the object of peace is profit – gain- just as the object of war is.” p.2

To illustrate his idea the capital gain is the real reason for prolonging the war he shows how differently the new socialist government in Russia and the capitalist government are handling the issue of peace. The Russians have made their terms for peace well known. Britain and France engage in dark diplomacy, working on terms with Austria -Hungary, and Germany in secret. He concludes that Britain and France want continuance because they still see that the venture is profitable

The profit to be made is not only on the sale of arms and supplies, but the reclaiming of colonial lands recently lost to Germany. The new colonial lands have numerous untapped resources. Further development in Europe is no longer possible due to overuse of land. The new colonial lands are vital for further growth. The allies hope to weaken Germany and take the land back.

The European power’s main relationship to the colonial land is for exploitation. The people of the land are seen as a vehicle to be used to cultivate the ground. They are not independent/agentic beings. The following quotes are a summary of this aspect of the philosophy.

“To prevent such a fight, one of three things may be done: You may eliminate the fighters, you may remove the thing they fight about, or change the attitude on what they are fighting about.” p.8

“Herein lies the real bone of contention of the world war – darker peoples for cheap labor and darker people for rich lands” p 13

“Before getting into the terms of peace for the darker nations, we wish to observe that incidentally are the darker people’s exploited. It is not because of their color per se, but because colored peoples happen to assume such a low place in the scale of civilization just now as to make such exploitation attractive easy and possible.” p 15

Because you can not eliminate the European nations or the colonial lands, the attitude toward colonial lands must change. That is why the European must acknowledge the colonial’s independence an aid in the march toward self-sufficiency. Global peace and stability will be needed to facilitate this new paradigm.

The creation of a Permanent International Peace Commission will be necessary. The commission will judge international breaches of justice. The ability address grievances in a court setting will make the need for war obsolete. As part of the commission, there will be an International Council on the Condition of Darker Races. This council will ensure profit sharing between the workers and capitalist, proper education for natives, and eventual independence for the native people.

Randolph believes the desire for peace will be the ultimate motivator to accomplish this goal. World War I was so bloody on such a large scale that no one will want to endure any war ever again. If everyone wants peace, then full independence for the colonies is necessary. He extends the desired autonomy to Alsace, Lorraine, and Poland which were controlled by various European nations at that time.

Immigration

Like many other Black Empowerment Thinkers, Randolph was a restrictionist.[D] Restrictionist means a person believes jobs or government benefits should first go to United States citizens. His reasoning is complex.

1. Black immigrants rarely applied for citizenship in the early 1900’s
2. White immigrants worked to bring racist laws into the North to shut down black competition for work. Immigrants from nations that were hostile to the USA displaced black veterans in the job market.

His restrictionist stance came from the general labor dynamic of the early 1900’s. The labor unions shut out blacks. Then the union would monopolize the labor market. When the union would strike, blacks would fill the jobs left behind by the strikers. So blacks were often opposed to immigration and the unions. The racism of the labor unions led to most blacks voting Republican and most immigrants voting Democrat. The following was a quote from Randolph in 1924.

“ Instead of reducing immigration to 2% of the 1890 quota, we favor reducing it to nothing… We favor shutting out the Germans from Germany, Italians from Italy, and the Hindus from India. Negro’s from the West Indies. The country is suffering from immigrant indigestion.”[D]

It is important to note that Randolph took no stance on immigration bills after the BSCP joined the AFL. Specifically, he did not comment on the McCarran-Walter Act in 1952 or the Hart-Cellar Act in 1965.[D]

Worker relations

In a 1919 editorial in his periodical “The Messenger” he detailed his Socialist policy in an article entitled “Our Reason for Being.” Randolph explains how the interest of black and white workers are the same. Specifically, their interests are better wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions. If unions discriminate against blacks, the capitalist will have a bank of workers to use when the union workers strike. The larger the union, the more power it will have. Therefore integrating unions is only logical. He cites the Industrial Workers of the World, which was the largest union and the most powerful integrated union in the 1910’s.

Allowing Blacks in Unions will also stop the spread of communism among black people. Black radicalism was starting to spread in blacks frustrated with the slow pace of racial justice. If black people were financially stable faith would be restored in the government and society. The newfound faith in America would lead to more stability.

Proactive Politics

Randolph gave the opening speech at the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. In the speech, he details how all Americans need to have full employment. Randolph hoped the march would lead to a jobs bill that would reduce national unemployment. Fair hiring practices must accompany the new jobs. He details one of the main hindrances to fair hiring practices is the need for social peace. Opponents will always claim that change will upset current workers and customers and cause a problem. Randolph expresses the need not to be afraid of conflict for the sake of advancement. Randolph demands that federal funding be contingent on compliance was the method of enforcing the new employment laws.

Randolph also makes clear that the march is just the beginning. He calls for listeners to take a pledge to take the call to resistance back home.

“ When we leave, it will be to carry on the civil rights revolution home with us into every nook and cranny of the land, and we shall return again and again to Washington in ever growing numbers until total freedom is ours” [F]

Legacy

Thomas Baker interview Randolph in 1968 on his life and legacy. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library kept the interview. The interview recounts his dealings with presidents Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson

The first President that Randolph interacted with was F. D. Roosevelt. Randolph had scheduled the 1941 March on Washington to protest segregation in the armed forces and munitions manufacturing. World War II was underway in Europe. The United States would enter the war in December 1941 after Pearl Harbor. The US was supplying the allied war effort. Therefore munitions factories were opening all over the country. Blacks were applying and were not given jobs in munitions factories. For a group of people kept systematically poor, not being allowed in a growing industry was a real problem.

An even larger problem was segregation in the military. There was the moral issue of fighting discrimination overseas when blacks at home suffered and the practical issue of the glass ceiling for promotions for blacks. A black soldier could be in charge of a black division but nothing else. That made the dream of becoming a general unobtainable. All black people in the armed forces had feelings of resentment.

Mrs. Roosevelt was the first to reach out to Randolph to see if they could avoid having the march. The President did not want racial strife to divide the nation when any day the US could be called to help the Allies in Europe. Mrs. Roosevelt asked why had Randolph not come to the President first. After talking, Mrs. Roosevelt set up a meeting between FDR and Randolph.

F.D. Roosevelt explained that he was soon to execute Executive Order 8802 forcing the National Defense Industry to desegregate. Initially, the Executive Order only applied to government contractors. Randolph demanded the addition of federl government work. Roosevelt agreed if Randolph called off the march. Two days before the march, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 and it included the federal government.

Executive Order 8802 did not contain the military. Randolph and other Civil Rights leaders went to work on a national campaign to end segregation in the military. Truman agreed to meet with Randolph in either 1947 or 1948, Randolph could not remember. In the meeting, Randolph explains black were preparing to become insubordinate if the military did not desegregate. Truman did not realize the situation was that serious. Truman got to work and issued Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military.

Randolph says Eisenhower did the least of all the presidents he worked with for the cause of Civil Rights. Eisenhower was sympathetic to the black cause, but would not take public stands. Randolph did commend Eisenhower for protecting the Little Rock 9, but he could have done much more.

Randolph recounts the story of the 1963 March on Washington. Senators Javits and Douglass organized a meeting between Kennedy, Johnson, various congressmen, and Civil Rights leaders. The biggest concern was keeping the march peaceful. There had never been a demonstration of that size before. If the protest turned violent, it would be difficult to contain. The Civil Rights leaders reassured everyone they could keep control.

Johnson is the best president for Civil Rights according to Randolph. He makes sure to say that list includes Lincoln. Randolph lists Johnson’s accomplishments: Civil Rights Act of 1964, 1965, Voting Rights Act of 1967 and the Open House Occupancy Act of 1968. President Johnson is the first man that won the Presidency that received Randolph’s vote. Randolph spent most of his life as part of the Socialist Party, and Johnson was the first mainstream candidate that had his support. Randolph is confident that President Johnson would soon end the Vietnam War.

Baker asks Randolph if Dr. King and President Johnson had any animosity. Randolph says that Johnson and Dr. King had a good relationship. There was no animosity between King and Johnson.

Randolph considers himself and fellow Civil Rights activists Roy Wilkins and Andrew Young the voice of most of Black America. He grouped Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois together as Capitalist thinkers.He considered Marcus Garvey the voice of more radical separatist. He says Garvey’s Back to Africa movement will not work for the following reasons.

1. Most blacks don’t want to go back to Africa
2. Blacks don’t have enough resources to collective move back to Africa
3. Even if blacks move back to Africa, Imperialist control all the resources.

Ultimately, the Back to Africa movement was not realistic.

Sources:
Books
1. Banks, W. M. 1996, Black Intellectuals: Race and Responsibility in American Life, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
2. Randolph, A.P 1917 and Owen, Chandler, Terms of Peace and the Darker Race, Poole Press Association (E-book version on Google Play)
Internet
A. Pfeffer, Paula F. (2000). “Randolph; Asa Philip” American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press.
B. “A look at Malcolm X as a mirror for America” New York Times 12-16-1992
Asa Philip Randolph biography on http://www.aflcio.org
C. Scott, Daryl (1999) “ Immigrant Indigestion” Center for Immigration Studies
D. Randolph, A.P. “Our Reason for Being” transcript on http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu
E. Transcript of Randolph’s 1963 March on Washington Speech found on http://www.jacksonville.com

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The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Asa Philip Randolph demonstrates to black leaders how to build coalitions. Randolph was also realistic about the limitations of his organization. The realization of his limitations led him to seek strategic alliances. While in these alliances he was able to keep control of his union and stay focused on his goal.

Randolph also understood that some organizations could derail his union. If he were to ally with a group that was too radical he would not only hinder the Brotherhood, he would also put many porters in danger. Randolph sought alliances with other mainstream organizations.

As most of the readers already know, Asa Philip Randolph organized The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and obtained a charter from the American Federation of Labor (AFL). He was successful in his efforts because he made strategic alliances to increase his power. An evaluation of the porter’s previous attempts to unionize will be used to demonstrate how “going it alone” is not realistic.

The first attempt to create a porter’s union was in 1890 with the Charles Sumner Association. Charles Sumner was a Senator that fought for Civil Rights. The Pullman Company threatened to fire all the porter’s and hire white replacements. The 1890 strike never happened. The second strike threat occurred in 1897, and again the company threatened to hire white replacements to stop the strike. The closest any porter got to making an appeal for higher wages was getting an editorial in a local newspaper in 1901.

The porter’s primary barrier to successful organizing was a lack of money. In the 1920’s a porter made $1,200 a year. The poverty line in the 1920’s was $1,500 a year. So most porters did not have money for savings or union dues. In addition to only making $1,200, tips composed twenty percent of the salary. As anyone that has worked for tips knows, tips fluctuate, leaving the porter in an even more precarious position.

Not having sufficient income made porter’s even more dependent on the Pullman Company. The company had a porter rule book with two hundred and seventeen rules. When that many rules are in place, every worker made numerous transgression every shift. Pullman had grounds to fire a porter at any time. In addition to not having income or job security, a porter would have a difficult time finding new employment. Pullman specifically recruited dark-skinned black people for the porter job. The job market discriminated against dark-skinned people. The loss of a porter job could be a setback that a black man would never recover.

In 1925, Randolph was selected to run the Brotherhood of Pullman Porters. His job is to finally give the porters a much-needed raise and change the rules to allow for porters to stand up to abuse. Randolph faces many of the same problems previous organizers will face. Membership fluctuates because people can not pay their dues. Instead of simply berating members, he went out to find allies with deep pockets.

Randolph sought out donations from liberal white churches. Donations from white churches keep the Brotherhood afloat for the tumultuous early years. Many of these churches were concerned with the welfare of black people. They have established wealthy membership that kept a steady stream of money flowing to the Brotherhood.

The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was another organization courted by Randolph. The AFL was the largest federation of unions at the time and had deep connections with the Democratic party. Both the AFL and the Democratic party had a long history of racism. In the North, blacks were not allowed in most unions. When unions went on strike, black workers would cross the picket line and fill the empty jobs. The AFL and Democratic party often conspired to create laws and reduce funding that would help black people as a way to retaliate.

Randolph knew that the AFL was the only union organization that could give the Brotherhood validity. Affiliation with the AFL would also give Randolph inside information on various initiatives in Congress. Most importantly the AFL could supply the Brotherhood with money in the event of a strike.

The Brotherhood received AFL affiliate status in 1929. The Brotherhood would pay the AFL $0.35 per member. A full AFL membership union only pays $0.01 per member. Many critics saw this not only as a “slap in the face,” but a poor use of scarce resources. Randolph understood that the AFL membership would be a long and arduous road. If the Brotherhood could survive this probationary period, they could obtain real government influence.

The Democratic party heavily pressured the AFL to begin to incorporate black members. The AFL had a long history of segregation in its affiliate unions. At one AFL conference, the group stated its official goal was to protect the livelihoods of native-born white men. The pressure came from the Democratic party’s need to keep control of the mayorship of many major cities, which had sharp increases in their black population. Also, the Democratic party wanted to pull membership away from third parties such as Democratic Socialists and Communists. The Democratic party could reduce the threat of a third party by being more inclusive.

Randolph garnered the most criticism for his introduction of AFL president William Green in Harlem’s Abyssinian Baptist Church. He said Green was the second Abraham Lincoln coming to rescue the black worker from industrial bondage. Many critics used this overly enthusiastic introduction as proof Randolph was using the porters as inroads into the AFL. The AFL had a long history of excluding black people and had not allowed the porters to enter as full members.

The election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1932 was the jumpstart that both the Brotherhood and the AFL needed to merge. FDR instituted the National Labor Relations Act in 1935 and expanded the Railway Labor Act to include airlines. These laws set specific procedures to form a union, address grievances, and to go on strike. The introduction of a union-friendly administration increased membership in the Brotherhood of Pullman Porters. It is not a coincidence that the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters got an official charter from the AFL in 1935. Having an administration that was friendly to the cause of black liberation had substantial effects. In 1937, the Brotherhood signed a contract with the Pullman company for higher wages and improved working conditions.

Many of today’s black leaders speak of black people becoming independent. Black organizations talk about divorcing themselves from white money and white members. Historically, completely isolated organizations do not work. It would be advantageous to look at what A. Philip Randolph’s alternatives were in the fight against the Pullman Corporation.

The obvious ally would be various black organizations around at the time most notably, the black church. If all these black organizations “pooled their pennies together” they could have serious money to fight injustices. The only problem with the strategy is that all the other black organizations had similar, if not worse money problems. In fact, Pullman gave generous donations to black churches to help in the fight against the Brotherhood. The Chicago branch of the National Urban League fought against the Brotherhood because of a large Pullman donation. The National Urban League funded most of the black politicians. Therefore, many of Chicago’s black politicians were against unionization. The lack of money in the black community hurts black organizations. Most black organizations are more concerned with getting donations to stay afloat and are willing to compromise ethics to get the donations.

The Brotherhood could have enlisted wealthier members of the black community. There were some prominent members of the black community that could have provided money. However, many felt threatened by the prominence of the porter’s in the black community. The few black professionals in major cities enjoyed being the wealthiest black people in town. If the porters obtained fair wages, they could challenge their status in the community. Most black professionals were deeply invested in Orange Meme striving. They were not interested in helping others.

One could say if you were going to ally with white people at least partner with white people that were integrationist from the beginning. The biggest rival to the AFL at the time was the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). IWW was integrationist from inception in 1905. One of the founding members, Lucy Parsons, was born a slave in Texas. The IWW wanted to do away with the wage system and put workers in charge of the means of production. The IWW put itself in direct opposition to the AFL that wanted “A fair day’s wage for a fair day’s work.” If the Brotherhood joined IWW, they would have to challenge Pullmans validity in running the railroad.

The IWW radicalism also led to scrutiny by authorities. In 1906, the murder of an Idaho Governor implicated an IWW leader. Citizen accused IWW member of rioting in Butte, Montana in 1914. Migratory farmers were also a large part of the IWW membership. Unfortunately, migratory farmers were looked down upon and blamed for many unsolved crimes. Migratory farmers were called hobos in the 1920’s and viewed negatively by the general public. The activity that put the IWW the most at odds with the Federal government was its outspoken stance against World War I.

Many unionist believe the government systematically targeted the IWW to cause its downfall. Numerous high profile cases plagued the organization from the early 1910’s to 1920’s. By 1925, the organization was a shell of itself. The union will recover in 1960’s, but the 1920’s was a dark time for the IWW. Randolph understood what the IWW was going through and was smart to keep the Brotherhood away.

Eugene V. Debs, one of the founders of the IWW, was a hero of Randolph. Randolph wrote about Debs’ philosophy in college and his first years at “The Messenger.” Even though Randolph personally agreed with the philosophy of the IWW, including the IWW’s stance against war, he knew a partnership would not be practical. Randolph knew how to set his personal feelings aside for the good of the group.

Randolph’s life and work demonstrate effective leadership. It is a model that more black leaders should follow. He understood the limitations of his group and worked with organizations that would complement the Brotherhood. Once Randolph determined which organizations could be of service to him, he put aside his personal feelings a pursued the alliance. His efforts ultimately culminated in the first contract between a black union and a major corporation. Randolph’s pragmatism is something to admire.

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What Is a Pullman Porter?

The Pullman Porter had a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement. His official job description was to assist the passengers on the luxurious Pullman Sleeping Car. His real job was to create the black middle class and forge countless organizations. The porter is known primarily for the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, which marked the first black labor union to sign a contract with a large company. In addition to all the historical accomplishments of the union, the porter provides vital insight into the black experience.

The first point of business is explaining the Pullman Company. The Pullman Company manufactured luxury train cars for overnight travel. The Pullman Company also contracted out the crew to run the car. The crew members were called Sleeping Car Porters. The founder George Pullman began the company after having to sleep in the train chair on an overnight trip to visit relatives. He started to design a car with rooms with full-size beds called berths. Pullman also elicited help from the government to create favorable laws and obtain funding. Pullman befriended the son of Abraham Lincoln, Robert Todd Lincoln while petitioning the government. Lincoln took over the company after the death of George Pullman. Both men were fiercely anti-union regardless of the race of the members.

In the simplest terms, a Pullman Porter is equivalent to airline stewardess with far more responsibilities. A porter would greet the passenger upon entrance to the train, carry the bags, show the passengers around the car, and cater to the various needs of the passenger. Porters acted as babysitters while parents drank, nurses when the elderly passengers were sick, and safety advisors when the tracks got rocky. The porter was always available with a smile to make sure his passenger’s trip was remarkable.

Pullman preferred to hire dark-skinned, tall, thin porter’s from the American South. They needed to be tall to reach the shelves above the berths. He needed to be thin to walk by passengers in the narrow hallway without touching. Southern to be sufficiently submissive, Northern blacks were often too rowdy. The dark-skin was especially important. Dark-skin marked the division between passenger and porter. The passenger needed to see the porter, but the passenger should never be obliged to consider the porter fully human. The porter was “other,” a servant, and he wanted the passenger to see him as such.

The passengers on Sleeping Cars were known for their rambunctiousness. The Pullman Car was one of the most expensive ways to travel at the time. The liquor flowed freely on the train, so much so, that passengers often “found themselves in strangers beds.” A Pullman trip would be equivalent to a modern day cruise.

In addition to most passengers spending a significant amount of time on the journey drunk, the white passenger treated the porter with very little respect. The most notable feature of the disrespect was referring to all porters as “George.” The name harkens back to slavery when slaves received their master’s last name. Since the owner of the company was named George, all his black workers were George by default. Termination was the penalty for not answering to George. The Pullman Manual had two hundred and seventy rules. A porter could never show and any indication that he was angry or hurt by a passenger’s comment.

Even though porters were not allowed to fraternize with the passengers, many passengers made advances on the porters. Sumner Welles was Undersecretary of State in 1940. Welles was exemplary as a diplomat and was picked to succeed the current Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Welles derailed his career by getting drunk and offering a porter money for sex. The porter told superiors, and other porters said Welles made the same advances on them. Various government officials confirmed the story and Welles was not picked to be Secretary of State. A 1977 tell-all memoir was the first utterance of this story.

Not all advances were turned down. Here is a story of a young porter and a bride whose husband had to disembark early from the train. The account comes from Larry Tye’s book Rising from the Rails.

Watching her husband ride off in a covered wagon, she struck up a conversation with [A porter] “You -you know you’re the first Nig-nigger I have ever talked to. Can I? I? – believe all- believe all my mother and father have told me about you people?” she inquired hesitatingly, with a peculiar smile. Her remarks flashed through my mind, bringing with them thing the boys had told me that white people say about niggahs, and I realized what she was suggesting. It’s sure hard to make white people believe that what they say might be true about some of us, but not about the whole race. Still, as the legend is to our advantage, I left my work for an hour, so that it shouldn’t die with me.

Not all white and black interchanges were agreeable. The porter had to find ways to protect himself that did violate company rules. Larry Tye recounts a story from The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Malcolm X worked for a few years as a Pullman Porter before turning to a life of crime and later conversion to Islam.

I remember that once, when some passengers complaints had gotten me a warning, and I wanted to be careful, I was working down the aisle and a big, beefy, red-faced cracker soldier got up in front of me, so drunk he was weaving and announced loud enough that everybody in the car heard him, “I’m going to fight you nigger.” I remember the tension, I laughed and told him, “Sure, I’ll fight, but you’ve got too many clothes on.” He had on a big Army overcoat. He took that off, and I kept laughing and said he still had on too many. I was able to keep that cracker stripping off clothes until he stood there drunk with nothing on from his pants up, and the whole car was laughing at him, and some other soldiers got him out of the way. I went on. I never would forget that – that I couldn’t have whipped that white man as badly with a club as I had with my mind.”

Relations between blacks on the train was also interesting. Because porters had to suppress their anger toward passengers they often lashed out against each other. Often porters would accuse other porters of “cooning.” Cooning is acting overly obliging to get bigger tips. A charge of cooning could come from having too big a smile for too long or the egregious dancing for customer’s amusement. Ultimately, all the porters had to compromise their pride to work for the Pullman company. An arbitrary line separates following orders and cooning. Cooning was always something the other guy did.

The other large part of the Pullman crew was the kitchen staff. To keep with plantation tradition, the kitchen workers were normally light skinned. Often porters would say waiters were soft and did not work hard. Many people will say that this is a remnant of anger from the plantation hierarchy. Light-skinned slaves, commonly descendant of the master, got “easier” jobs in the house. I think that the animosity between porters and kitchen staff was just another way to expel suppressed anger from passenger’s behavior.

Ultimately, kitchen staff and porters worked together. Kitchen staff would save scraps to make stew. Porters would keep an eye out for empty berths to allow the cooks and waiters to get a good night’s sleep. The kitchen staff could easily sneak out before the passengers awakened. In the end, both kitchen staff and porter were on the same team. If they did not work together, they would sink together.

I will detail the formation of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in later blog posts. As of now, I will say the contract between Pullman Company and The Brotherhood will be the first time and all black union will force a major company to sign a contract. The victory catapults Brotherhood President A. Philip Randolph to national acclaim. He uses his fame to make the National Negro Congress, which is a militant alternative to the NAACP. The National Negro Congress folds due to internal conflict. He learns many leadership lessons from the organization and begins a campaign to desegregate the government and military.

To rally support, Randolph rallies crowds around the idea of a March on Washington. Originally, Randolph was going to get 10,000 people to demonstrate in Washington, DC. Once he started relaying the idea to crowds across the country people from all over the nation and of all political persuasions. Randolph officially set the date of the march on June 27, 1941.

Franklin D. Roosevelt did not want a public demonstration at this time. FDR was attempting to gain support for joining in the fight in World War II. He was also afraid that communist would cause a disturbance in the rally and put American race relations on a world stage. FDR met with Randolph to come to a compromise that would allow for Randolph to call off the march. The result was Executive Order 8802 which desegregated the defense industry government and contractor. Two days before the March on Washington 1941 was to happen it was called off.

Randolph does not just fold up shop and go home. He expands the March on Washington Movement. He builds a March on Washington headquarters in all major American cities. The March on Washington protest take place all over the country for twenty years, and it causes change at the local level. On the national level, the March on Washington Movement forced Truman to sign Executive Order 9981, finally desegregating the military. The last March on Washington was in 1963. Dr. King’s gives his “I Have A Dream” speech at this rally.

Dr. King owes much of his career to Randolph and Ed Nixon. Ed Nixon was President of the Montgomery Branch of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Because Nixon was running the Brotherhood and various Montgomery political organization, Ed Nixon recommends Dr. King to run the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott lasts for over a year. Dr. King proves to Nixon he has potential and Nixon introduces him to Randolph. Randolph and his team gave Dr. King the tutelage he needed to lead the movement.

In addition to providing an organizational template and leaders, the Brotherhood provided funding for various organizations in the Civil Rights Movement. Randolph’s motto was, “ Whoever pays the piper calls the tune.” For a black organization to be truly independent, it had to be funded by black people. Malcolm X echoes the same sentiment in later years. Randolph would often invite Malcolm to his personal residence to tell him stories of the Harlem’s socialist movement and talk about politics. A. Philip Randolph and other black leaders including Elijah Muhammad started blacks down the road to self-determination.

The Pullman Porter has a dubious legacy in the minds of Black America. On the one hand, they had a servile role and had to take abuse without fighting back directly. On the other hand, they laid the foundation for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s. I feel the Pullman Porter is the ultimate symbol of the black middle class. Often we work in jobs in which we are under-utilized and treated with disrespect. Not to the same extent as the porter, but disrespect nonetheless. We do that to support the aspirations of our family and those that want to fight white supremacy directly. The fight against white supremacy takes many forms. Blacks have to utilize many methods to fight it. The porter was one of the most cunning soldiers in this battle.

The information for this blog post comes from Larry Tye’s book Rising From The Rails

For more information on the Pullman Porters please vist the official museum. HERE

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Indian Census and the Chawdar Reservior

This blog post is from the first half of Essay on Untouchables 3: Politics.

From Millions to Fractions

Untouchability is not a legal term. It is also not determined by physical features. It is a social concept that ostracizes a group. Dalits, the group that suffers from untouchability, have accrued disadvantage through generations. Birth determines untouchability. The condition can’t be changed.

Ambedkar lists the number of Dalits (Untouchables) in India as 50 million. The figure came from the 1931 census. The Indian government conducts a census every ten years.

There was no mention of caste in the first Indian Census of 1881. There was an attempt to add a caste question to the 1891 census, but the effort failed. The census of 1901 was the first successful attempt to add a question on untouchability. That year an untouchable was defined as one that most of the native people believe is untouchable. In 1911, there was a ten-question test to determine if one was a Dalit or part of the depressed classes. The questions involved if one eats beef or receives religious directive from a Brahmin. Many opposed the test on the basis that it perpetuates the idea of caste. The opposition did not win, and the question was on the 1921 census. Finally, the 1931 census confirmed there were 50 million Dalits pr one-fifth of the population.

The number of Dalits became vital after the formation of the Simon Commission. The group was formed to study and determine how best to rule India. One of the efforts they were undertaking was increasing the political power of Dalits through a reserved electorate. A reserved electorate would allow Dalits to vote for a select number of seats. The electorate and the candidates would all be from the Dalit Community.

The Lothian Committee in 1932 also attempted to win Dalits an appropriate amount of political representation. The effort to increase Dalit political power was opposed by various provincial committees that tried to make the case that untouchability no longer existed. The provincial committees believed the British wanted to reduce Hindu political power by splitting their share in government between touchables and untouchables.

There were also factions of Indian society that could benefit from an electoral reservation for Dalits. The first group is the economically underprivileged of India referred to as Backward Classes. They wanted to join the reserved electorate for Dalits. If this were to happen, the reserved voters would have more people from the Backward Classes than Dailts watering down the Dalit vote. Dalits would have supported a Backward Class reservation from the portion allotted to Hindus but not their own. The Backward Classes insisted on getting a reservation from the Dalits. When the Dalits refused, the Backward Classes joined the Hindus in their denial of untouchability.

The second faction that could benefit from an electoral reservation for Dalits, is Muslims. If the Hindu electorate split between Dalits and Hindus the relative power of Muslims increases. Muslims did not support the electoral reservation because they were pushing to have a larger representation in Parliament than their number in the population, which is called weightage. Hindus would only agree to weightage if they had an overwhelming amount of power in Parliament, and giving more power to the Muslims would not upset their majority. Seeding power would be beneficial to Hindus if it prevents the Muslims from splitting into their own country. The second reason Muslims opposed having a reserved electorate for Dalits is that many Dalit Muslims would leave the Muslim political contention to join with other Dalits. Indian Muslims still practiced caste, just not as severely as Hindus. The following quote from Ambedkar can be found in this essay:

Although Islam is the one religion which can transcend race and colour and unite diverse people into a compact brotherhood, yet Islam in India has not succeeded in uprooting caste from among the Indian Muslamans (Muslims).

Misinformation hampered future efforts to account for Dalits. Hindus began telling Dalits that the government planned to institutionalize untouchability. Dalits were afraid to register as such, thinking they would never be able to pass as a caste Hindu. Dalits would often attempt to pass as caste Hindu to avoid discrimination.

Ambedkar reiterates the need for Dalits to agitate at the end of this essay. If no one speaks out, there will be no way to increase Dalit political power.

The Revolt of Untouchables

Dalit resistance came in two stages. Before 1920, Dalits concentrated on protest and petitioning the government. After 1920, Dalits realized that petition the government has little success. Also, the national government declared that all public utilities and institutions were open to all citizens regardless of caste. Dalits moved toward Civil Disobedience and Direct Action.

One of the first civil disobedience campaigns was getting the ability to use roads near a temple called Vaikom in Travancore state. The campaign forced the government to move the road far enough away from the temple to allow Dalits to travel on it without polluting the temple.

The second great campaign was formed to grant Dalits access to Chawdar (Chavdar) Water Tank, located in Mahad, Bombay, in 1927. This tank revered as a reservoir for caste Hindus in the city. No one knows who originally built it, but it was declared public property in 1869. Dalits would frequently come to Mahad to shop and conduct other business. They would have to bring water from a well from a neighboring Dalit town or pay a caste Hindu to fetch water. In 1924, the city of Mahad adopted the laws allowing all citizens access to public facilities or institutions, including the water tank. However, the threat of caste Hindus violence kept Dalits away from the water tank.

Ambedkar organized a conference in Mahad in March of 1927 to discuss and organize around Dalit rights. On the first day of the conference, the 2,500 people in attendance felt frustrated in their ability to access water. Only Hindus could retrieve water from the tank, and they charged a premium price. On the second day of the conference, Ambedkar decides to take matters into his own hands.

After a rousing speech, Ambedkar entreats the participants in the conference to take water from the Chawadar Water Tank. The Dalits were energized, and all went with Ambedkar to the tank. This mass protest caused the Hindus to gather paralyzed with shock at first. Then the Hindus unleashed terror on the Dalits that participated in the protest.

After the protest, the Dalits realized what they were up against and decided to double down. A second conference was called for December 25th -27th, 1927. At the same time, the Hindus chose to fight back by petitioning the local Magistrate to forbid Dalits from using the water tank.

The Magistrate refused because the Hindus never proved that they had exclusive use of the tank. The Hindus then went to state court to establish their exclusive right to use the water tank. Ambedkar and a group of Dalits contested. At the beginning of the trial, the Hindus ask the court to issue a restraining order on Ambedkar to prevent him from returning to the tank. Ambedkar received the order days before the December conference.

With the trial in recess, Ambedkar leads the December Mahad Conference. On the first day, he decides to have a public demonstration of the injustices of the caste system. He burned a copy of Manusmirti, the religious book that codifies the caste system. Ambedkarites still commemorate the Burning of Manusmirti as a holiday.

The next order of business was deciding if they would disobey the restraining order and drink from the water tank in protest. The Magistrate communicated he would uphold the state-mandated restraining order. After careful deliberation, the group decided to comply with the restraining order to give themselves the best chance of winning the court case. It turns out that it was a good decision. Ambedkar won the court case, and Dalits were allowed to drink from the Chawdar Water Tank. Ambedkar cautioned over celebration as Dalits needed to continue fighting to prevent untouchability from being recognized nationally.

The December Mahad Conference went on to express the vision of the Ambedkar movement. The conference created a manifesto that declared equality is the birthright of all Indians. No one had a right to remove that equality without due process of law. The law was created to secure this equality and must be respected by all people. The caste system, as detailed in Manusmirti was explicitly created to disadvantage Dalits. Those in this conference vow to oppose all literature, modern or ancient, that promotes the caste system. Those in the conference also vow not to do the jobs mandated by their caste. Specifically, transporting dead animals and cleaning homes of the dead.

Ambedkar makes sure to attack the idea that Dalits brought scorn onto themselves by eating the dead animals they transport. Many attempts to claim the Hindus repulsion at Dalits were justified because the practice of eating rotten meat is disgusting. Ambedkar reminds the audience that Dalits would only eat rotten meat if they have no other options. The cruelty of the caste system prevents Dalits from finding any other work. Also, the law mandates they participate in scavenging to keep the only housing they were allowed to live. Legally mandated work for no money is no better than slavery.

The Dalits must be strong to not obliged the work their caste mandates. The civil disobedience Ambedkar prescribes would serve two functions. The first is to increase self-esteem and self-respect. The second is to strike a blow against the Hindu Social Order. The current oppression only last because Dalits comply.

Held At Bay

Hindus view the advancement of Dalits as a personal attack. As the situation stands now, the Touchables are above the Untouchables. They are not one people. They are people from two different nations. By resisting caste, the Dalit seeks to elevate himself and the perceived expense of the Touchables. The Touchables will use any means necessary to maintain the status quo.

One example of this ruthlessness of caste Hindu oppression was in the immediate aftermath of the Chawadar Water Tank demonstration. It began with the Dalits exercising their right to tank water for the city reservoir during the Mahad Conference. Once the caste Hindus in the area saw the demonstration, a rumor began that the Dalits would soon enter the temple. Two hours after the water tank rally, the conference members were having a community dinner. A mob of Hindus attacked the Dalits with sticks. Many of the Dalit leaders kept their brothers from fighting back, stopping a much larger riot.

After the conference ended, Hindus from Mahad sent messages to government officials from the districts where conference delegates lived. Hindus assaulted many of the conference delegated on the way home or once they returned home.

Another example of oppression happened in Dholka Talvka, Bombay when Dalits attempted to integrate a school. Many of the Hindu parents did not want their child sitting with Dalits. They pulled their children from the school. The tension from the integration efforts led to a Brahmin to attack a Dalit. The Dalit men of the community protested at the police station to ensure something would be done. When the men were away, Hindus attacked the Dalit section of town. The Hindu mob included women. There was also another force of Hindus waiting to ambush the men after their demonstration at the police station. The ambush plan was thwarted, but Dalits still sought redress for the attack on their women and children. To further frustrate the Dalit’s effort, the Hindus poured kerosene in the Dalit well. The Dalits only had this one water source.

The Dalits appealed to Gandhi through Harijan Seva Sangh, Gandhi’s organization that promoted Dalit Civil Rights. They did nothing. Not only did they do nothing, they forced the Dalits to remove their complaint from the Magistrate and promised them no harm would come to them. Dalits had no way of enforcing Gandhi’s promise.

After reflecting on the incidents detailed above, one must wonder why Dalits are always on the bottom of the hierarchy. Ambedkar proposes a few reasons. They are a minority and scattered throughout the country. Also, the idea of caste has infected the mind of Dalits. Even within the Dalit community, there is a Caste hierarchy. There needs to be a common ethos to unite Dalits.

One example of a minority community with a unifying ethos is the Muslims. When a Muslim was attacked, the group unites in retribution. Much of the reason Hindus treat Muslims better is fear of a blood feud starting between Hindus and Muslims. The idea of a unifying ethos does not stop and India’s border. Muslims from other countries would not be afraid to defend their brothers in the subcontinent.

One way Hindus can exact revenge on Dalits is through violence. If the Dalits go to the police, the police rarely act. Most of the police are caste Hindus themselves. Even if they investigate the infraction, it is rare other caste Hindus would testify against their own.

However, the much more effective form of Hindu reprisal is the social boycott. Dalits own minimal economic infrastructure and depend on Hindus for employment and commerce. If a Dalit is seen at a protest, he can be fired. If he is not fired, Hindus could refuse to sell him goods. Both firing someone from a job or refusing to sell products to Dalits is legal. The only recourse for Dalits is political action.

Their Wishes Are Laws Unto Us

When Hindus are asked why they oppose the advancement of Dalits, they don’t reply with how it physically harms them. Hindus respond that it is an offense to their Dharma. Dharma means the privileges, duties, and obligations of a man as a member of the Hindu community, caste, and age group. Manusmirti sets each person in their station in life, responsibility, and benefits. A Smriti is a religious holy book for Hindus. They have several, but of all of them, Manusmirti is the most prominent and influential.

Manusmirti codifies who is inside and outside the social order, called Chaturvarna. Chatuvarna is a hierarchy with the Priest class at the top and the Menial class at the bottom. Those outside of Chaturvarna are called Bahayas, excluded. The denotation of Bahayas is the Western equivalent of being a non-citizen. Bahayas were never meant to have rights under the social order.

Bahayas are the present-day untouchables. To illustrate how the denotation of outsider plays out in current times, Ambedkar uses the example of the Balais. Balais is a sub-group of the Untouchables. The local caste Hindus attempted to force the Balais to confirm to caste rule. The Balais refused and the Hindus retaliated. Balais were not allowed to get water from village wells or cross land owned by Caste Hindus. Not being allowed to cross land owned by Hindus put some Balais cattle farmers out of business because the property of Caste Hindus surrounded their land. These draconian laws force Balais to leave local municipalities they had occupied for centuries.

It is important to remember at the time of the persecution of the Balais there was no legal enforcement of the Caste System. Ambedkar illustrates how custom could be more powerful than the law. Every social group has habits in how they act, feel, and value various things. Even when a new individual joins the group, they are pressured into conformance. To challenge the group norm could lead the new entrant to become an outsider himself.

To counter the power of Chaturvarna propagated by custom, laws must be passed to destroy the Caste System actively. As one can see, the Protestant Reformation would not have been successful without laws separating church and state. Laws were also needed to make state superior to the church. Without an active degradation of church authority, it would have regained its place as supreme authority.

Dr. A. A. Muhammad Analysis

What Dr. Alim got right

He is a superb advocate for holistic medicine and improving overall health in the black community. The Hoop House concept is an actionable plan to address the problem of food deserts. Urban gardening will not only improve the nutrition in underprivileged communities; it will increase fellow feeling amongst those that participate in the effort. The root of good health is nutrition. In a community with little money for health insurance, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. In addition, the building of hoop houses will not require government help.

He also brought an awareness of Ayurvedic medicine and Yoga to the black community. Without Dr. Alim, many black people would not have been exposed to any eastern medicine. Other avenues to eastern medicine are price prohibitive for poor people.

Advocacy for prostate cancer awareness is also vital in the black community. Because we are oppressed anything that can threaten virility can do severe damage to our psyche. Back in the 1990s when his work started losing a prostate could mean the loss of the ability to get an erection. Even the rectal exam could make men feel emasculated.

The economic devastation of Iraq through government sanctions was a subject few would discuss. Dr. Alim shined a light on the subject and urged Blacks to do what we could for those overseas. The act of discussing the US embargo on Iraq shows a glimmer of a world-centric perspective.

The most significant campaign of Dr.Alim’s life was the Dopebusters campaign. He provided a community solution when the government decided to underfund police in DC. Most stood by and watched DC neighborhoods fall apart. Dr. Alim created a program to at least retard the cancerous growth of crack.

Is Dr. Alim racist or antisemitic?

No evidence could be found of Dr. Alim advocating violence toward anyone for any reason. Also, there was no evidence that he prevented someone from improving their life due to race. In fact, in the Yale speech, he said NOI member that has a weapon can be expelled from the organization. He repeatedly said that the NOI is a peaceful movement and any vengeance will be taken out by Allah. So to equate him to the Ku Klux Klan or neo-nazis is a stretch.

Most often he is accused of supporting Steve Cokley’s conspiracy theory on Jewish doctors spreading HIV to babies in Africa. After evaluating the evidence presented he never confirmed the conspiracy only said the Cokley is a reputable researcher. Dr. Alim never evaluated the claim for himself. To hold Dr. Alim responsible for something, another person said that is not even in the Nation of Islam would be unfair. Dr. Alim said HIV was created and spread by the US government.

The worst statement Dr. Alim made was about Mayor Barry saying he “should not bow down to the Jews.” This statement is insensitive, yet not promoting violence to Jews directly or indirectly. So the statement can be considered a gaffe more than evidence of hate toward anyone.

In Dr. Alim’s work, he partnered with an Indian American and a Chinese American to create Abundant Life. Later he worked with Dr. Freddie Ulan, a white man, on Nutritional Response Testing. So he has worked with people outside of his race and faith for most of his career.

Finally, he works in conjunction with the Church of Scientology. The vast majority of the members of that organization are white. Therefore it would be difficult to say a black man that worked with Scientologist and took Scientologist training is racist. Racism is defined as advocating for violence, harassment, or destruction of property of other people based on race. He also would not fit the definition of racist if it is defined by impeding a person from advancement economically or politically because of race.

It would also not be fair to say Dr. Alim is racist for his affiliation with the Nation of Islam alone. If the NOI is evaluated from the lens of all Blue meme ethnocentric religions, it is not worse than any other. The belief of the NOI is the Mother Plane will return and lay waste to the earth and create a new Muslim social order. It is no different from the belief the Jesus will return lay waste to the current order and create the Kingdom of Heaven. Indeed, the Nation of Islam will not accept white converts, but many sects of Judaism will not accept those that are not ethnically Jewish. Master Fard Muhammad taught that whites are the devil, as the bible says many of the Hebrew’s neighboring tribes were evil. Therefore, the NOI might have racist members, but all those in the NOI are not racist by virtue of being members.

What Dr. Alim got wrong

What Dr. Alim gets wrong is the idea of a grand conspiracy that is thwarting blacks and every turn or a grand plan to kill all black people. It is true that there are nefarious plots conducted by individuals, but there is not grand plan that every white person is involved with to destroy black America.

When Dr. Alim was in charge of the Dopebusters program, he claimed that elites were all working against him. In reality, he had support from Democrats like Maxine Waters and Republicans like Jack Kemp. The NOI Security Agencies won contracts when they were not the lowest bidder. The effort stopped because the companies went bankrupt not because a law was created to stop them from getting contracts.

There were some Jewish groups like the Anti-defamation League (ADL) that were against the NOI getting government contracts. Their motivation was various insensitive things high profile leaders of the NOI said, not arbitrary hate for Muslims. In essence, there was a legitimate call for concern on the part of Jews. It is reasonable to be worried that if the NOI had the authority to police, they could begin to commit racial violence. The Senate conducted an investigation that vindicated the NOI against claims of racism. Therefore there was a legitimate concern that was evaluated and determined to be unfounded.

The Dopebuster program ended because the company went bankrupt. To blame a conspiracy by the elite only obfuscates from the real issue. Unless there is a thorough evaluation of what happened, people can’t improve community policing efforts in the future. The idea of a grand conspiracy will discourage future community policing attempts because people will believe the effort will be thwarted.

Another conspiracy that never materialized was the government was going to use the 2009 swine flu outbreak to force vaccinations. That never happened. It is currently 2019, and there has been no effort to force people to get vaccinated. There was no plot to infect a large portion of society with a virus to cause a mass extinction. Wild assertions like the government is attempting to exterminate black people through vaccines only raise suspicion of vaccine effectiveness in the black community. For a group of people with limited access to healthcare, it is essential to implement all low-cost preventative measures like vaccines.

The most outrageous conspiracy theory is the idea of an earthquake machine at the HAARP weather research facility causing the 2010 Haitian Earthquake. There is no scientific method to heat a tectonic plate. A man that graduated from medical school is smart enough to a tectonic plate can’t be heated artificially. By making such a wild conspiracy theory, it distracts from the real issue of America’s foreign policy toward Haiti. Because the US has not allowed the country to be fully sovereign, Haiti couldn’t build proper infrastructure. Having people advocate from Haiti spewing complete nonsensical assumptions only hurts Haiti.

Where is Dr. Alim on the Spiral?

Dr. Alim is a Blue meme spiritual leader. Even though he has an extensive background in science, most of his worldview is under-girded with NOI theology. The world is a dichotomy between the elite and aboriginal people. The elite are all in cahoots to systematically kill and oppress the aboriginals.

In the Crucible, Don Beck speaks of how once one sees the world in a dichotomy, they often dehumanize those seen as others. The dehumanization of others causes much of the “white man is the devil” rhetoric prevalent in the NOI. Even though Dr. Alim is more moderate than the average NOI member, he often indulges in wild conspiracy theories with little evidence. An example of a wild conspiracy theory is the idea that the US government has an earthquake gun.

The super-ordinate goal of Dr. Alim and the NOI is to unite Black America under their brand of Islam. NOI Islam is not the same as orthodox Islam. The most significant theological difference is the belief in “The Wheel,” a giant UFO that houses NOI leaders after death. So the NOI historically was against other versions of Islam. However, Dr. Alim never spoke against other forms of Islam.

One area that does not fit the traditional idea of the Blue Meme is motivation based on fear and guilt. The NOI doesn’t believe in an afterlife. It appears Dr. Alim believes one can live over 100 years with proper diet and exercise. NOI motivates people through the authority of the leaders. Dr. Alim exemplifies the adherence to authority through leadership in how often he references Louis Farrakhan when speaking.

Dr. Alim Muhammad’s Health Philosophy

Nutritional Health

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad first understood the importance of nutrition after reading Elijah Muhammad’s book How to Eat to Live while in medical school. In a 2018 interview, he said it is the best book on nutrition ever made. There a few books more technical, but Muhammad was writing for a barely literate people. While in college, he began the “How to Eat to Live” lifestyle of one meal a day. The book also has a very restrictive diet that forbids common foods like pork, lima beans, and sweet potatoes.

The name for Dr. Alim’s clinic and nutritional center is the Abundant Life Clinic. The name derives from the Bible verse John 10:10, “I have come so you can have life more abundantly.” In this clinic, the goal is not only to improve the patient’s health by relieving the person of disease. The goal is to build a healthy body to facilitate living out one’s purpose. For a short period the clinic operated out of Paradise Manor.

With the knowledge and technology that is available, a person could comfortably live to be 140 years old. Most people only live to 70 due to what Dr. Alim calls anti-survival factors. Anti-survival factors are poor diet, inadequate exercise, exposure to radiation. Pro-survival factors are the opposite and increase one’s lifespan.

The most common anti-survival factor is poor diet. America is the most obese country on earth, and blacks suffer from obesity more than any other sub-group. The prescription would be eating whole natural foods that one grows themselves.

To grow one’s food, one should build a hoop house. These hoop houses Dr. Alim prescribes are low-cost greenhouse one can make with little knowledge of carpentry. Growing food is necessary because the food produced through industrial farming has very little nutrition.

In 1929, Allah’s judgment fell on America. Master Fard Muhammad launched the “Mother Plane” on October 24, 1929. The launching caused the stock market crash. After that “The Great Dust Storm” blew America’s topsoil into the ocean. This Great Dust Storm and Stock Market Crash was Allah’s judgment on America for its treatment of blacks and natives. Since then, America has had to use chemicals to make up for the lack of topsoil. In recent years, genetically modified foods have been introduced so plants can survive exposure to harsh pesticides. The industrial farming has so reduced the quality of America’s that a carrot now has 1/4 the nutrition as carrots in the 1950s.

Raw cow milk is at the top of Dr. Alim’s food pyramid. Life begins with the mother’s milk, that provides all the nutrients needed to sustain a healthy life. The nutritional profile is so amazing; milk can be referred to as white blood. The only reason babies are weaned off of mother’s milk is they grow teeth. Luckily, G-d ensured that all mammals’ milk has a similar nutrition profile. G-d also imbued man with the ability and intelligence to cultivate cattle. Not only does milk’s nutritional profile excellent, but the water that makes up 89% of milk’s mass is the best one can find.

The perceived problem with milk is lactose intolerance. Sixty-five percent of the population experiences some level of lactose intolerance. According to Dr. Alim, the pasteurization kills the essential enzymes in milk needed for digestion. Also, pasteurization denatures the proteins in milk making the proteins harder to digest. When one consumes raw milk, with the proper proteins and enzymes, there are no digestive problems. Pasteurized milk is virtually useless. A calf fed on pasteurized milk will not live for six months.

Raw milk was the missing link in Dr. Alim’s Vegan lifestyle. Once raw milk was added, he became more nourished. He claims to have consumed up to 60 oz of raw milk a day with no need for any other food. As a former sufferer of lactose intolerance from pasteurized milk, Dr. Alim had to add raw milk to his daily regiment slowly. However, he now knows raw milk is one of two of the best foods known to man.

Sour raw milk treatment replaced the Alpha Interferon Treatment that Dr. Alim pioneered. According to Dr. Alim if raw milk is left to sit for three days at room temperature, it will sour. Raw milk cannot spoil only sour or ferment. Once the milk is sour, the alpha interferon, along with beta and gamma interferon has increased to the same levels as his earlier treatment. The ratio of interferons found in sour raw milk is optimal for treating a myriad of sicknesses. A daily regiment of sour milk can treat HIV.

Info-peptides small proteins can also be derived from raw milk. These info-peptides reorganize and re-balance cells. Dr. Alim has extracted these peptides into an elixir sold in a spray bottle. The elixir can be used to grow hair on balding men.

The other food necessary for optimal health is Dr. Alim’s patented “green cake.” The green cake is a proprietary blend of herbs, spices, with blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). The types of blue-green algae used are cholera and spirulina. This algae not only has an amazing nutritional profile, but it also can reverse the effects of radiation. Unfortunately, the algae taste so bad that it would be hard to consume an amount that would help the body fight the effects of radiation. The good doctor has made a blend that transformed the algae to a great tasting “brownie-like” substance.

Background radiation historically ranges from 0 – 20 Geiger counts per minute. According to a report from a reputable website, radiation counts in most cities are above 1,000 Geiger counters per minute, currently. There are many reasons for the increase. The first is the fact that the solar system moved from behind a cosmic cloud that exposes us to radiation from the center of the galaxy. The second is that radiation has drifted from the forever wars in the middle east. The US and its allies used depleted uranium bombs. These bomb raids have created lasting problems in the Arab countries that will take centuries to clean up. The last reason was leaking and failed nuclear power plants. The biggest culprit is the Fukushima Power Plant in Japan. The failure in 2011 is well documented and remembered by most people. Dr. Alim also accuses Limerick Power Plant, Peach Bottom, and Hunter’s Point Nuclear Power Plant of leaking radioactive water to the environment. He provides no hard evidence that American nuclear power plants are leaking at levels that are detrimental to the environment.

The green cake will not only reduce radiation in the body, but help improve the immune system and metabolism. Dr. Alim mentions herpes, influenza, HIV, and cytomegalovirus could be treated using green cake. Consumption of green cake enhances athletic performance and reduces recovery time from injury. Because it is mineral-dense and high in protein, it can correct a mineral deficiency. Ultimately, the green cake can treat any health problem.

On a world scale, the green cake could cure world hunger. The substance takes no energy to make and can be eaten raw. So there is no need to increase energy production. It also is imperishable so that it would be perfect for space voyages. Green cake is literally out of this world.

In 2004, he heard about Standard Process Products (SPP) and a holistic clinician named Dr. Freddie Ulan. They met at a Standard Process Symposium in 2005 and began trading ideas. Dr. Alim says that Dr. Ulan gave a seminar on “How to build a $1 million cash practice, and that was what he was looking for.” [V12] Dr. Alim decided to be trained in Nutritional Response Testing. He moved his clinic to Mitchellville, MD and became a subsidiary of Ulan Nutritional Systems.

He gave a demonstration to the Nation of Islam on Nutritional Response Testing in 2010. He had a patient lay on his back and put his arm straight in the air. Dr. Alim tested his ability to match the force he applied to his arm. That was the control part of the study. Dr. Alim then proceeds to touch the area above various organs while pulling on his arm. When an organ was deficient, the patient would become weak an unable to resist the force of Dr. Alim’s hand. Then he repeated the procedure with various Standard Process Products (SPP) laying on the patient’s chest. When the proper SPP product was on the patient’s chest, he could resist the force of Dr. Alim’s hand no matter what organ was touched. After several iterations, a cocktail of SPP products was prescribed.

Mental Health

There is a short video from 2012 in which Dr. Alim is addressing an audience that is half Nation of Islam members and half Scientologist. [V16] He is standing close to a large photo of L.Ron Hubbard. He says the goal of the talk is to explain the basics of NOI philosophy to Scientologist to increase dialogue and understanding. In 2009, Minister Farrakhan announced a “marriage” between the two groups. Dr. Alim admits he was skeptical at first. However, over the years of interaction, he felt Scientologist were the only whites without the racist attitude found in most white people. Scientology is the only way to move whites from there usually angry and reactive state.

He then begins his talk about the man the Nation of Islam believes was G-d on Earth, Master Fard Muhammad. From the photo, he presented Master Fard was a light-skinned man that did not look black. The story of his birth was his father was a 100% jet black aboriginal man that went to the Caucus mountains to civilize a white heathen woman. Dr. Alim proposed the term “civilized” is equal to the Scientologist term “Dianetic Processing.” The idea that whites have a “devil nature” could be equivalent to the Scientologist term “reactive mind.”

He ends the video by saying he looks forward to more meetings and he is under Dianetics processing himself. He told everyone he had just completed Training Routines and Objectives. The crowd applauded in congratulations.

In a second short video uploaded in 2012, he urges NOI members to undergo Dianetics training.[V15] He explains Dianetics teaches people how to “clear” mental blockages that prevent a person from evaluating their problems. Louis Farrakhan has demanded all the labors of the Nation go clear. So it is something one must do. Your reactive mind may tell you “no,” but you must push forward to be productive members of the Nation.

Vaccines

Dr. Alim called a moratorium on viruses in 1997. The reason was not that Dr. Alim doesn’t believe in the theory of vaccines. It is because he is concerned with viral contamination. He said in a 2009 interview that all the vaccines he has every studied were contaminated with other viruses. Also, many of the diseases that have vaccines would have mild consequences even if someone contracted it.

At the time of the interview, the NOI was concerned that the government would mandate the swine flu (H1N1) vaccine. According to Dr. Alim the worst form of the H1N1 virus only has a two percent mortality rate. Most of those that get sick will stay sick for only a few weeks.

The worst outbreak of swine flu, also known as H1N1 was the Spanish Flu that broke out during WW1. This disease was precipitated from a vaccine against whooping cough. Dr. Alim claims researchers at Fort Dietrich resurrected the eradicated virus to give it to the masses.

He is not sure if they were motivated by profit in creating the swine flu vaccine. It is also possible that the government wants to use the swine flu vaccine to introduce and even more deadly virus. The government has had numerous plots to depopulate using engineered vaccines, according to Dr. Alim. One recent incident involves Baxter Pharmaceutical sending vaccines contaminated with deadly bird flu to sixteen countries. He references the book Emerging Vaccines by Leonard Horowitz for more information on how AIDS was the result of contaminated vaccines.

The mandating of viruses could cause the great separation the NOI has been speaking of for years. Even at the time of the interview, children could not attend public school without all their vaccines. Dr. Alim says it could be a boon to have large numbers of NOI kids kept from school as it will force their parents to form an alternate means of education. Black people in general and Muslims, in particular, should not send their kids to “the enemy’s” school.

The best way to counter any viral infection is with raw milk and natural supplements. Three factors cause these infections, which are an introduction to the virus, a deficiency in Vitamin D, and a deficiency in calcium. The raw milk provides soluble calcium. Increasing vitamin D can be done through supplements or sunlight. Even if a person contracts a virus the immune system can fight the infection with proper nutrition.

Dr. Alim is not a hard anti-vaxxer. When he was on a mission trip to Haiti, he inoculated the children against tetanus. Many of the children were running through rubble from the 2010 Earthquake, so he wanted to prevent disease.

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Sources

Dr. A. A. Muhammad’s Religious and Political Philosophy

Speech at Yale Law School

Dr. Alim was invited to speak at Yale Law school due to his activism in ending the drug trade at the Mayfair Mansions. The speech occurred late in 1990. Unsurprisingly the event was met with protest accusing Dr. Alim of being anti-semitic. The Yale Law Journal first published the transcript in the first quarter of 1991.

The speech that Dr. Alim gave was on how White Supremacy fueled the drug trade. The mechanisms linking elite power to generational poverty has been around for centuries. The only hope is for all of America to heed the call of the Nation of Islam and fund their plans for national renewal.

Yale was named after a man named Eli Yale. Mr. Yale worked for the East India Company and the Royal African Company. His fortune was built off of colonization, slavery, and plundering of natural resources from aboriginal people. So the University he was currently speaking in was a part of the system that destroyed his people.

Pirates and slave traders were another group that plundered aboriginals. A man named John Hawkins captained the first slave ship. Some also pronounced his surname Hopkins. He landed in Africa waving a flag of the crescent and star. The crescent and star flag was the universal sign of brotherhood. The African boarded the ship because they believed they could trust Hawkins. Once the ship was out of sight of land, the crescent and star flag was replaced by the skull and crossbones. That is when the slaves knew they were doomed.

The skull and crossbones is also the symbol of the Yale fraternity by the same name. Their most prominent member was the current US President George H.W. Bush. Bush and his colleagues have a thirty-year history of using clandestine military groups to destabilize developing nations. The destabilization has fueled the drug trade. One example of this type of white terror was the removal of Manuel Noriega in Panama.

The Bush family were instrumental in wars in Nicaragua that created a banana republic in that country in 1912. The family saw the country as their personal property. American rule ended in 1933. Ever since the 1930s, the Bushes wanted the area back. Bush used Elliot Abrams to issue an ultimatum to Noriega of Panama. Either Noriega aid the US invasion of Nicaragua and provide a base, medical support, and additional troops, or the CIA would assassinate him. Noriega held to his convictions and narrowly escaped an assassination attempt.

Similarly, Muammar al-Gaddafi escaped an assassination attempt. Just like Noriega, he was warned a few days before. When the missile entered his bedroom, Gaddafi was not there. The later invasion attempt was also thwarted. The mechanism that scrambled the electronic defense of the invasion fleet was a celestial object unlike anything ever seen before.

The Nation of Islam (NOI) believes there is a giant wheel-shaped city in the sky piloted by humans of superior intelligence. The origin of the craft and its crew is earthly, not extraterrestrial. The NOI calls this ship “The Wheel” or “The Mother Plane”. Most outside the NOI call the vessel an “UFO”. The Mother Plane house many smaller wheels that conduct various maneuvers.

The mother plane beamed up Louis Farrakhan in 1985 after a religious ceremony. While onboard The Mother Plane, Elijah Muhammad told him of the United States plots to overthrow Nicaragua and Libya. It was Farrakhan who warned both Gaddafi and Noriega of their appending assassinations.

In addition to sending Farrakhan to warning Gaddafi, The Mother Plane scramble the electronics on the US ships set to invade Libya. These ships had to return to Miami for servicing.

Because the Muslims know about this city in the sky and it houses their greatest leaders Master Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, there is no need to have weapons. In fact, if a Muslim has a weapon or firearm, he will be excommunicated from the group. Muslims fight with their words that are given to them by Allah himself. That is why all of America must heed to the teachings of Master Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad to avoid impending doom. Muslims do not want to overthrow the government.

Dr. Alim reiterates that his message is to teach the Black man of American and the American Indian. These are the original or aboriginal people of the earth. Whites were created by the mad scientist named Yacub to be the grafted devil and the skunk of the earth. The white man was designed to wreak havoc on the world. Dr. Alim does concede there are whites that are caught up in the oppression. The factory workers of England were and are currently in the form of neo-serfdom. However, for the most part, whites are oppressing the aboriginal people of the earth.

During the question and answer period of the speech, an audience member asked why he linked Christianity to John Hawkins and Eli Yale. These men were not practicing the teachings of Jesus. Dr. Alim answers by saying that one must understand the ideologies undergirding the oppression that we see today. He discussed earlier in his lecture about John Calvin, who created the idea of predeterminism in Christianity. Part of that theology was the G-d preordained whites to rule over the rest of the world.

One must extricate the conventional idea of Christianity, centered around a white Jesus from their mind. Jesus could not have been blonde and blue-eyed because the Aryan people are not native to the region. Also, Jesus hid in Egypt, which is in Africa. How would a white family be able to hide in a black country? Europeans created the image of Jesus we see now because they wanted a religious icon that resembled them.

Another audience member asked how can the Nation of Islam expect to be supported by the government when they support enemies of the USA, such as Noriega and Gaddafi. Dr. Alim did say earlier in the speech the president should request an audience with Louis Farrakhan to create solutions to the various social ills of America. He answers the question saying that he never expects to credit from the evil American government. In fact, it makes no difference to him whether America survives or not. As a person of the oppressed class, he would simply brush off the dust from his jacket and move forward. In Dr. Alim’s estimation, George H.W. Bush was not serious about ending the drug war he helped create.

He went on to say that the accusations of Gaddafi being a terrorist were proven to be false. Also, even if they were true, they don’t compare to the United States dropping 419 bombs on a mostly black Panamanian slum. Not only was Gaddafi not a terrorist, but he also helped the NOI when they were in need. Gaddafi gave them a three million dollar loan to build their center in Chicago.

Then a Jewish man in the audience self-identified himself as a Zionist. He asserted he was not afraid of the NOI. He asked how the NOI could justify referring to Jews as “those that rejected Jesus” as anything other than antisemitic. They also assert that Jews were principle in the slave trade.

Dr. Alim replies that he considers himself a Semite, so he cannot be anti-Semitic. He and others in the Nation of Islam only repeat what they read in the Bible. The Bible says many negative things about the Jews. The words of the Bible are not the fault of the Nation of Islam.

He nor anyone else in the Nation of Islam have never committed an act of violence against Jewish people. In addition to not being violent, they do not encourage harassment or vandalizing Jewish property. So if the Jewish audience members are not afraid, then they have every justification for feeling secure.

Another audience member asks if Dr. Alim would confirm or deny the allegations of Louis Farrakhan that AIDS was spread to black babies in Africa through Jewish doctors.

Dr. Alim replied by saying that Farrakhan never said all Jewish doctors were conspiring to give black babies AIDS. In fact, a man named Steve Cokley made the statement on a show called “Crossfire.” Cokley’s statement was based on a journal article that said doctors that happened to be Jewish gave a group of young Africans a contaminated vaccine. The result was the babies contracting HIV/AIDS.

According to the research, Dr. Alim has read HIV/AIDS was created at Fort Dietrich, MD at the Army Biological Warfare Center. There is no evidence that the virus evolved from Green Monkey Virus, Slow Virus 40, or Visnoff Virus. When the AIDS cases first appeared, the Soviet government blamed the US Government. The US government blamed the Soviets. So ultimately, no one thinks the virus occurred naturally.

The reason whites are concerned with the disease now is the infection of white gay males. When the government first created the disease, it was spread through contaminated vaccines in Central Africa. The government underestimated how many whites would interact with blacks in a way that would allow for infection. The ability of the virus to mutate was also underestimated. Now it has spread all over the world.

The goal of spreading the disease in Africa was to kill all the inhabitants so whites could have the resources. The depopulation of Africa is just part of a global initiative. Gay sex or intravenous drug use is not common in Africa. Therefore artificial contamination is the only plausible explanation.

At the time of the speech, there were 1,135 white heterosexual AIDS cases and 3,503 black heterosexual AIDS cases. So the infection rate was significantly higher in the black community, given that blacks were only 10% of the population. The disparity in heterosexual infection again points to a depopulation plan because rates of drug use and homosexuality are the same in the black and white communities.

Ultimately blacks must unite to fight the biological weapons formed against us like AIDS and the chemical weapons developed against us like crack. Without unity, the aboriginal people will be wiped out.

The final question came from an audience member asking what the Nation of Islam doing to fight the white supremacist power structure at the heart of the drug trade. Even though their efforts at the Mayfair should be applauded, they only confronted street-level black drug dealers. Earlier in the speech, Dr. Alim explained how the US promoted the Cali Cartel and thwarted the Medellin Cartel. He insinuated the US government backed the Cali Cartel.

The doctor explains the reason the Mayfair Mansions became a large open-air drug market was that it was easily accessible from Interstate 95. Whites from the suburbs could buy drugs and quickly return. Many of the local police were supporting the drug trade and recruiting young dealers with few options.

Then Dr. Alim tells the biblical story of Joseph. Joesph was jailed in Egypt when the Pharoh had a dream none of his advisors could interpret. Pharoh had to reach to the bottom of society, those relegated and written-off for the answers. The government needs to look to those they despise in the Nation of Islam for the solution.

He again asserts, “The Nation of Islam is not going to attack America. Fight America.” In fact, if a Muslim has a firearm, he will be kicked out of the Nation of Islam. He hopes that America will not fall as Babylon did. You laugh at Farrakhan’s vision on The Mother Plane, but you will not laugh when it is over your cities.

Free Needle Exchange Program

Dr. Alim Muhammad was against the free needle exchange program because it was ineffective in stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS while making drug use easier. The oldest needle exchange was in Vancouver, Canada. Dr. Alim sites a study on those that received needles in Vancouver to show recipients still shared needles. Needle exchange also does nothing to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS from sex. He showed that there was a correlation between sexual transmission and prostitution. The doctor then proposed social programs to reduce the need for prostitution. Ultimately, needle exchange is just a step toward drug legalization. He applauds Bill Clinton and his Drug Czar General Barry McCaffrey in stopping needle exchange programs. It is important to remember the Congressional Black Caucus supported the free needle exchange program.

The Tuskegee Experiment and Forced Sterilization Programs

In 1997, President Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Experiment. This experience held 399 black men infected with syphilis from 1932 to 1972. The point of the experiment was to prove that Black men experience the same stages of the disease as White people. The cure was known the entire time. However, these men were forced to languish with the disease. The experiment ended because a journalist uncovered the plot. A book was published on the incident in 1981 titled Bad Blood by James H. Jones.

Dr. Alim explains Clinton should not only apologize but work to rectify the situation. Louis Farrakhan has an eight-step procedure for healing.

  • Point out the wrong
  • Acknowledge it
  • Confess it – to G-d first
  • Repentence
  • Atonement
  • Forgiveness
  • Reconciliation
  • Reconciliation / Perfect Union

By not taking steps to rectify the situation blacks will always be suspicious of those in the medical field and the government. Dr. Alim never specifically says what should be done in reparations.

He also mentions the American Eugenics Movements initiative to sterilize black people without consent. At the publication of the referenced articles, 200,000 to 100,000 sterilizations were funded by the federal government. Twenty-four thousand black people were sterilized by the federal government directly, of which 80 were underaged children from 12 – 14 year old.

Healthcare as Human Right

In 1948, the United Nations declared that all people have a right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. One of the services referenced explicitly in the document was health care.

Black America is severely hampered in its ability to access healthcare because of a lack of black-owned institutions for medical training. At the turn of the century, there were 13 black-owned medical schools in the country. Then there was a study called “The Fletcher Report.” After the study, the number was whittled down to two, Meharry in Nashville, and Howard in Washington, DC. Now there have been a few more added namely Charles Drew in Los Angeles and Morehouse Medical in Atlanta. Even with those developments, there are not enough institutions to produce black medical professionals. At the time of publication of the referenced article, the black doctor to black patient ratio was 1 to 1500 people. Most industrial countries were 1 for 300 people. Therefore black America has a third-world doctor to patient ratio.

As the US government hinders healthcare in the black community, it hinders healthcare in Iraq. Even after the Gulf War ended, 1.4 million Iraqis died because of inadequate healthcare. The US has placed sanctions on the country that hinder it from getting medicine and medical equipment. In addition, US bombing raids destroyed vital water infrastructure that is difficult to rebuild. The most devastating aspect is the use of depleted Uranium tipped bombs. The radiation from these bombs has increased congenital disabilities and damaged adults immune systems.

Congressional Campaign

While running for office, Dr. Alim participated in the Free For All TV Show with the other NOI congressional candidate George X Cure.

The show hosts first asked Dr. Alim how he reconciled being part of the NOI, which is a black separatist group with running for Congress. Dr. Alim replied that black separatism is only the final resort of the NOI. If black people can not find freedom and equity in America, then blacks should be allowed to separate. For now, himself and others in the NOI want to work within national systems.

Next, Dr. Alim was questioned on how he expected to win support from Jewish voters, given his support of Louis Farrakhan. Dr. Alim answers by saying the Farrakhan has never spoken against Jews, only Zionism. The NOI as a whole considers themselves followers of Moses and the other prophets. They support all those that are followers of Moses.

Another host pressed Dr. Alim about demanding that Marion Barry not “bow down to the Jews.” He replied that he was in a conversation with Marion Barry. Marion Barry said he could not go to a Farrakhan rally because “the Jews will crucify me.” So Dr. Alim was only repeating the language Marion Barry used and would have said the same thing if Barry was in fear of another groups reprisal.

Then the conversation turned to Marion Barry. Dr. Alim was asked how he and other NOI members could support Barry after his drug scandal. The behavior was not conducive to the teachings of any religion. Dr. Alim explained that their support was of a man walking the path of redemption. Their faith believes in forgiveness, and that was the root of the support. A host asks if the support of Marion Barry was just a political play to get political support for current and future campaigns. Dr. Alim assured the host the goal of the NOI’s support of Barry was moral and not political.

They ended by talking about Middle East Policy. Dr. Alim said that the current hostilities in Iraq were a mistake. The USA should re-evaluate giving all its foreign aid money to Israel and Egypt. A more balance foreign aid policy would reduce hostilities in the region.

Episode of Crossfire

The episode of “Crossfire” happened before minister Louis Farrakhan was to appear at a rally at Yankee Stadium. The panel believed that Farrakhan would endorse Mayor Dinkins in is election against Rudy Giuliani.

Dr. Alim, who was the National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam, was asked about Farrakhan, often referring to whites as the devil and Judaism as a gutter religion. He responded by saying one that understands black history cannot view those that oppressed black people as anything other than evil. The whites of today are evil in the extent they support and condone past and present oppression.

Louis Farrakhan had recently supported a statement by Steve Cokley on a Jewish conspiracy to spread AIDS in South Africa. Steve Cokley is not a member of the Nation of Islam but is a black nationalist. Dr. Alim was asked if he also believed that Jews infected black children.

Dr. Alim said he could not confirm or deny the statements by Cokley because he had not reviewed his research. He views Cokley as a reputable researcher and has no reason to doubt him. However, even if his research is wrong, then Cokley should be confronted, not Louis Farrakhan or the Nation of Islam.

Finally, Dr. Alim is asked why has out of wedlock births and unemployment in the black community gone up since the 1960s. Could it be possible that slavery is still affecting a population five generations later? Dr. Alim responds with no group of people has gone through the type of oppression black people endured. After slavery, there was the KKK and Jim Crow law. So there was never a break in government interference in black life. In addition to decades of oppression, the misguided liberal policies of welfare further degraded the black household.

2010 Haitian Earthquake

Dr. Alim believes that an earthquake machine caused the earthquake in Haiti. The earthquake machine is part of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) weather research facility. HAARP was able to focus 1 billion watts of power at the tectonic plates under Haiti. The excess heat caused the plate to expand, resulting in an earthquake.

Oil was recently discovered off the coast of Haiti. Therefore, America wants to control the area. As evidence of America causing the earthquake, Dr. Alim says the “humanitarian force” was assembled for deployment the day before the earthquake.

The Nation of Islam had a joint effort with the Church of Scientology to provide humanitarian aid. Dr. Alim was able to fly to Haiti on John Travolta’s private jet. While in Haiti Dr. Alim provided various medical services to those displaced by the earthquake. He also observed how the US “humanitarian force” was serving the people. According to Dr. Alim, the US soldiers only guarded the Citibank.

On April 6, 2010, address to the Nation of Islam, he urged the congregation to fund more charity to the nation. Members should also consider adopting orphans from the earthquake. However, the way the NOI could be the most beneficial by urging the American government to act in an equitable way toward Haiti. He also encouraged congregants to demand an investigation in HAARP and their possible involvement.

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Sources

Analysis of Kemron Trials

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad made two bold claims about the industry of HIV treatment. The first is the disease, and the lack of a cure in the 1990s was the result of a conspiracy to kill black people. According to Dr. Alim, the US government created HIV as a depopulation effort. The second claim was he was discriminated against in contracting because he was straight Black Muslim. Both of those claims will be evaluated in more detail.

Was HIV/AIDS a government experiment to kill Black people?

It is not possible to know how AIDS came to be. If it was developed as an instrument of biological warfare, the government would never admit to it. However, one can evaluate the current availability of treatment to determine if there is an effort to cure whites while keeping blacks sick. According to the CDC in 1990 of every 100,000 people that died 10.2 died of HIV. In 2016 of every 100,000 people that died 1.8 died of HIV. So the disease is far less deadly now than at any other time.

The CDC has also created many initiatives to help the Black Community fight HIV/AIDS. One of these initiatives is “Act Against AIDS.” One of the branches focuses on removing the stigma of HIV through internet videos. These videos showcase people of color affected by the disease. They also present HIV information that the average person would not know. Another branch encourages testing and has enlisted singer Trey Songz as a spokesman. Ultimately the CDC is implementing a holistic plan to reduce infection rates in the African-American community.

Part of the reason for such a stiff decline in HIV/ AIDS deaths is the availability of free or low-cost treatment. One of the largest providers of free and low-cost AIDS treatment in the country is the Whitman Walker Clinic. Even during the 1990s two-thirds of their patients were minorities and four-fifths of the people in their assisted housing were black. In 1994, two of the four former presidents of the organization were black.[40] They also had black board members and health care providers. The clinic has expanded to include mental health care and dental care. Whitman Walker is a stellar example of racially aware medical treatment.

There are indeed more Blacks living with HIV by percentage than any other racial group. However, there are also many programs to address the issue in our community spearheaded by government. Concocting wild conspiracy theories or stigmatizing the Black LGBT community as brainwashed is not helping anything. What will help, is reducing stigma and increasing awareness about treatment. There is no grand scheme to kill off blacks with HIV. There is no real evidence that such a plan ever existed.

Was Dr. Alim discriminated against because he was a straight Black Muslim?

Even though Dr. Alim did not receive the multi-million dollar contract to become the District’s primary healthcare provider, he won several smaller contracts. According to the Chicago Tribune he won $213,000 in 1993 and $333,000 in 1994 through the Ryan White Fund.

Dr. Alim was indeed treated unfairly when applying for the 1993 contract for an HIV/AIDS media campaign. He submitted his complaint and the director of the DC HIV/AIDS Agency was forced to resign. His compliant was taken seriously and he was given the contract after the conclusion of the investigation.

Previous medications for AIDS such as AZT and DDC were indeed used for several months before clinical trials began. But when they were implemented in the late 1980s the medical community was desperate for a treatment. By the mid-1990s, there were four medications to treat HIV/AIDS. So there was not the same urgency to move drugs along. The reduction in urgency led to Dr. Alim’s cure having a slower progression through FDA approval.

It is also important to remember the Nation of Islam has made inflammatory statements about Jews, LGBT people, and Whites. The NOI believes that homosexuality is not native to Africa and solely the result of colonization. Even a cursory reading of the Final Call one will find references to “Satanic Jews.” Whites are called “devils” in the teachings of Master Fard Muhammad. Therefore, whites, Jews, and LGBT people have every right to question and work to stop the NOI from gaining influence. Black people would act no differently toward a group that made similar statements about them. Even though the NOI has never acted violently toward any of the groups in question, inflammatory rhetoric can spark a backlash that could impede business deals.

To be clear, the NOI believes homosexuality to not be natural to black people. Colonial brainwashing or the effects of various drugs induce the condition. They believe there is a grand conspiracy to effeminate black men and make black women more masculine. The goal is to reduce the population of black people. Farrakhan liberally uses LGBT slurs in his speeches and links homosexuality to pedophilia. He claims the Jewish Talmud sanctions both abominations. Once one realizes Farrakhan’s position, it makes sense that Jews, and LGBT people fought against him.

It is also unrealistic to think a company headed by a man that publicly accused the government of creating HIV/AIDS to kill black people would have no problems winning government contracts. In reality, if the government wanted to railroad him, that could charge him with slander. The government could have also labeled the NOI a hate group. The fact he won contracts and a medical trial from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) shows he was not signaled out or there were not a large group of government officials working against him.

Although there was not a grand conspiracy to railroad Dr. Alim arbitrarily because he was a straight Black Muslim, there were people that did not want him to succeed. Their motivation was more than likely due to his public inflammatory statements and genuine concern about how he would treat patients. If a White doctor were part of an organization that made similar statements, blacks would be up in arms and advocating for him not to be awarded contracts.

So if the clinic had any discrepancy in a tax filing, then, of course, people were going to be looking for it. Once found, they would use the harshest penalties to slow down the work of the clinic. It is also possible the NIH purposefully gave the trial oversight to a company in financial trouble. They could have felt political pressure not to deny a black company a trial, so they sandbagged them with a company that was not financially solvent. It is just as possible that they didn’t believe the drug to be effective due to the previous trial by the World Health Organization. No reason to give the best resources or oversight company for a drug that is more than likely, not effective.

It is also odd that if the drug was effective, they had such trouble finding participants for the study. There were over a dozen medical facilities involved with the study all over the nation. Even if the IRS hampered operations at the Abundant Life Clinic, there were two other facilities in the DC area that could participate in the trial, Howard and Georgetown University. With HIV/AIDS being one of the most prevalent diseases in the country, getting 560 patients should have been no problem even with a few clinics out of commission.

It is far more logical the treatment didn’t work, and those that received the treatment did not recommend it to friends that were also suffering. Even in all the articles on the subject reviewed for this blog, only two people claimed to be cured, Lashaun Evans and Demetrius Muhammad. All the other reports of success came from doctors using alpha-interferon therapy. The only evidence from a participant in the clinical trials came from Rocky Thomas that had an eight-year-old daughter with AIDS. In a 2000 article, she said the Kemron only worked for a short amount of time. Then she took her daughter off the medicine because it was ineffective.[75]

Dr. Alim has not used Alpha Interferon therapy since 2009.[79] He uses sour raw milk to treat viral infections. He said in a 2018 interview that if a person takes raw milk and leaves it out for four days at room temperature, it will properly sour. Once a person consumes the sour milk, the body will absorb the proper mix of all the various interferons. There are more than sixteen types of interferon. So Dr. Alim no longer uses Kemron.

Why is this important?

The NOI has performed many vital services for the Black community. They have reformed many people returning from prison, cleaned up drug-infested neighborhoods, and given insightful commentary on the plight of black America. However, they do Black people a disservice by promoting wild over-arching conspiracy theories that all whites or the entire government are conspiring to kill blacks. There have indeed been instances such as “The Tuskegee Experiment” when the medical community has failed Blacks. However, there is no grand conspiracy involving the entire government to kill Black people. A sober evaluation of Dr. Alim and the Kemron trials shows that. Besides, HIV/AIDS is now a completely manageable disease with many avenues to receive free or low-cost care, not the cause of Black genocide.

Currently, the NOI is pushing an anti-vaccination campaign. They are using many of the same wild conspiracy theories used in the 1990s on the origin of AIDS. Now the NOI says that vaccines cause autism. The claim that vaccine caused autism has been debunked since 2011, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Hopefully, parents will do all the proper research before deciding on vaccination.

Not getting vaccinated could be doubly damaging for a community with limited access for healthcare due to poverty. Unfortunately, a group as prominent as the Nation of Islam would not give their followers and supporters all the necessary information. It is even more unfortunate when outlets like “Sway in the Morning” or “The Breakfast Club” help promote misinformation. I am sure the readers of this article will make the right decision in regards to vaccination.

Sources

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/autism.html

Kemron Trial Sources

Abundant Life and the Kemron Trials

The first reported AIDS case happened in June 1981. Unlike any other disease, it attacked the body’s ability to fight infection in stages. The first stage a person contracts the illness but shows no signs of the disease. Then they experience flu-like symptoms. Later, Progressive Swollen Lymph Nodes (PGL) makes the patient suffer more. Finally, white blood cell counts drops from over 10,000 to 40. At that point, full AIDS sets in. The disease mostly affects the underprivileged in America and Africa.

One of those affected was Dr. Davy Koech. He was a member of the Kenyan Medical Research Institute and charged with finding a low-cost cure for AIDS in 1989. He had recently lost a friend to the disease. During Koech’s search, he stumbled on an article in a veterinary magazine on cows suffering from a condition similar to AIDS. The researcher found high amounts of a protein called alpha-interferon in their nasal mucus. An alpha-interferon injection cured the cows. Somehow this elusive protein rebuilt the cow’s immune system.

Later researchers discovered that humans make the same protein. Dr. Koech devised a way to add the protein to a powder and give it to patients who have AIDS in Kenya. The Kenyan trials lasted eighteen months treated 795 patients with only 19 dying of AIDS. Of the 19 that died, 4-5 stopped taking the medication against doctors orders. The medicine was named Kemron when derived from dairy proteins and Immunex when derived from human protein. The success of the trial was announced at a press conference in July of 1990. Not only was it effective, a six month supply only cost $1,500.

The announcement eventually made it’s way to medical journals in the USA. Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad was trying to find a treatment for the epidemic that had been ravaging the black community. He decided to go to Africa to evaluate the claim himself. At first, he admits to being skeptical, but after his investigation, he believed in the drug. By October of 1991, he began treating patients in the USA. Of Dr. Alim’s 75 patients, 90% experienced relief from symptoms in two to three weeks.

Dr. Alim was not the only person that heard about the miracle cure. LaShaun Evans contracted HIV in 1990. She flew to Kenya for treatment was cured. Dr. Koech also claimed to have cured a Kenyan government official that wanted to remain anonymous.

Even though Dr. Alim and a few others were convinced, the mainstream medical community was not. The AIDS Research Advisory Committee (ARAC) which is a branch of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) said there was no scientific support to the claim that interferon is effective in the treatment of AIDS. They studied 108 patients in Africa and found no evidence that the virus was contained. Even Wayne Greaves, an associate professor of medicine at Howard University, felt there was no overwhelming evidence of the effectiveness.

Undeterred by the critics, Dr. Aim assembled a network of seventy doctors across ten cities. All were successfully treating patients with versions of alpha-interferon. These independent trials led to a National Medical Association endorsement. The National Institute of Health (NIH) also reversed their original position and supported trials on alpha-interferon. Part of the reason NIH reversed the decision was many in the Black community accused them of dismissing research from an African.

What made Dr. Alim and his associates’ treatment different was it required ingestion by sticking a lozenge under the patient’s tongue. The lozenge would melt and be absorbed by the mucous membrane. If the stomach lining absorbed the lozenge, nothing would happen. These interferon proteins are produced naturally by the mucous membranes and it takes a mucous membrane to absorb the protein. Dr. Alim also added a regiment prohibiting junk food, alcohol, and cigarettes.

Abundant Life was not only testing AIDS medication, but it also provided general services like AIDS awareness. The DC AIDS Agency was looking for a group to distribute AIDS Awareness pamphlets to the urban community. One of the bidders for this contract was Abundant Life. During the review process, Abundant Life not only had the lowest bid but had the highest evaluation score. Caitlin Ryan and others at the AIDS agency allegedly conspired to keep the contract from going to Abundant Life. Dr. Alim filed a complaint in June of 1993. The investigation resulted in the dismissal of five DC government employees, including Caitlin Ryan.

Dr. Alim then realized he must go above an beyond to win these contracts. He decided to form a coalition of Black and Latino AIDS Activists and Clinics. The new group was named after the Ghanaian symbol for health, Sankofa. By pooling resources and experience that can compete against the companies that normally get the $11 million in federal subsidies. Sankofa incorporated in August of 1993. The most formidable of the competitors was the Whitman Walker Health Clinic that started in 1973. They would compete for the 1.2 million dollar contract to provide AIDS services to the city.

Whitman Walker Health began as a venereal disease clinic for gay men. When the AIDS epidemic began in the early 1980s, gay men were at the forefront. Whitman Walker Health became one of the first large scale operations that tested and treated HIV patients. By the 1990s they have expanded into Maryland and Virginia. When contracts were up for bidding, it was challenging to match their experience and proven record of success.

The reason there were so many black organizations to fight AIDS in the 1990s was the changing demographics of the disease. In the 1980s, 56% of AIDS patients were black, by the 1990s it was 75%. In addition, 25 -30% of the incarcerated population, that is majority black, had HIV. Many of the new minority patients contracted the disease through intravenous drug use and did not feel comfortable going to LGBT+ white people for treatment. Also, minorities were suspicious of white medical care in general. The government recently released the files from the Tuskegee Experiment. The experiment allowed dozens of black men to suffer from syphilis when a cure was readily available. There were also rumors, often spread by the Nation of Islam, that the AIDS virus was artificially developed to kill black people. All these factors led to Blacks and Latinos to want care from those within their community.

At the same time, the black community was skeptical of the white medical establishment; the LGBT+ community was suspicious of Dr. Alim, who was the national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. The NOI has made many inflammatory statements about the LGBT+ community. They had even gone as far as to say there were no LGBT+ people in Africa before colonialism. The idea of homosexuality being a colonial phenomenon goes far beyond typical conservative stances against gays and lesbians. Dr. Alim had also been public about his opposition to condoms being dispensed at schools and free needle programs. The gay members of Sankofa expressed their concern but felt unity was important if they were going to compete with more established health care organizations.

In June of 1994, Whitman Walker Health won the $1.2 million contract with the right to renew without competition for four years. This contract was the largest involving AIDS treatment that year in DC and Sankofa was the leading competitor in the two-stage bidding process. The first panel rated Whitman Walker and Sankofa equally. Whitman Walker’s numerous volunteers and previous AIDS prevention efforts gave them the edge in the second panel.

Leaders in Sankofa did not take the decision laying down. Alonzo Fair, a Sankofa spokesman and leader of URBAN, wrote letters to city human services officials weekly during the bidding process. Flair said he doubted Sankofa would be treated fairly unless the officials were pressured. He also questioned the legality of the second panel. Dr. Alim is quoted as saying, “This would signal no one in city hall hears or cares about the under-served.” The Washington Post also quoted him as saying “bad news for all the communities that are most affected by this epidemic east of the Anacostia River…I can only speculate in an election year.. whether some kind of political deal has been cut.” [36] The decision to award the contract to Whitman Walker came within days of a prominent LGBT community organization endorsing then-mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly. It is also important to remember Mayor Kelly named a day in honor of Abdul Alim Muhammad two years earlier.

The goal of forming Abundant Life was not just to win government contracts, but prove low does alpha-interferon works. By 1993, the World Health Organization conducted a sixty-week study by black doctors that could not prove Kemron worked. In addition, studies by National Institutes of Health (NIH) on various alpha-interferon drugs could not conclusively prove the treatment worked. Part of the problem with the trial is no one fully understood alpha-interferon and how it works in the body, including Dr. Alim. Therefore if the test did have shortcomings, one could not modify the trial.

After twelve delays, the NIH trials began on April 19, 1996. The study did not only include community health facilities like Abundant Life and the AIDS Community Consortium. They also used established mainstream health care facilities such as Georgetown University Medical Center, Medical Center of Delaware, and the University of Minnesota Hospital. To participate in the study, one had to be over 13 years old and have a CD4+ T-cell count of 50 to 350 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Inmates were not included in the trial despite the advocacy of Dr. Alim. The trials called for 560 patients.

Unfortunately, the day the trial was announced the IRS froze many of Abundant Life Clinics accounts and put a levy on $23,000 the DC government owed the clinic for AIDS services already rendered. The clinic was accused of not paying payroll taxes. Dr. Alim admitted he would not be surprised if they did have a tax filing discrepancy. [67] According to sources in the press, the clinic owed between $90,000 to $174,000. A similar fate befell Dr. Barbara Justice another facility that was part of the Kemron trials. A third facility ran by Dr. David Jordan had its funding sources dry up. Many, including Dr. Alim believed this legal trouble was due to a government conspiracy. However, there were still over a dozen other clinics not affected by the IRS or funding issues involved in the study.

National Institutes of Health (NIH) contracted the Division of AIDS Treatment Research Institute (DATRI) to oversee the study. Unbeknownst to Dr. Alim or the other researchers DATRI was in financial trouble and had to shut its doors by the end of 1997 after only being in business six years. One of the researchers, Dr. Austin, believed NIH never wanted to conduct the trial so they contracted DATRI because they knew they would go out of business.

Only 233 patients enrolled of the needed 560. The trials ended early on July 31, 1997, due to lack of participation. Even if the trial went to its 18-month completion, the goal would not have been met. The difficulty in finding patients was listed as the official reason the trial stopped. Black media, including the NOI’s “Final Call” covered the trials and disseminated information on how to volunteer. However, in the end, all the efforts were not enough.

Kemron Trial Sources

Kemron Trial Sources

  1. The Washington Post “The Resurrection of Malcolm X: 25 Years After His Assassination” by David Mills 02-25-1990
  2. The Philadelphia Tribune “Kenyan Researchers Find Possible AIDS Cure” by Sherry Stone 11-05-1991
  3. The Philadelphia Tribune “Can It Be Cured? Kenyan Doctor Finds Interferon May Be Solution To AIDS Epidemic” by Sherry Stone 11-26-1991
  4. Chicago Citizen “AIDS Treatment Drug Reports 90% Success Rate” by Lisa Ely 04-12-1992
  5. Indianapolis Recorder “Out of Africa: New AIDS Drug Said to Work Miracles” by Audrey Gadzekpo 05-23-1992
  6. Washington Informer “Ward 8 Health Fair Deemed Bug Success” 07-29-1992
  7. Los Angeles Sentinel “Nation of Islam Draws Battle Lines on Deadly AIDS Virus” by James Bolden 08-20-1992
  8. Afro-American Red Star “NMA to Hear Need For AIDS Drugs” by Malik Shabazz 10-24-1992
  9. Afro-American Red Star “NIH, NMA agree on AIDS Trial” by Malik Shabazz 10-31-1992
  10. The Washington Post “NIH Reverses Decision on Controversial AIDS Drug” by Sally Squires 11-31-1992
  11. New York Amsterdam News “Dr. Justice Accuses ABC-TV of Airing ‘A Pack of Lies'” by J. Zamgha Browne 11-28-1992
  12. Afro-American Red Star “New AIDS Medicine To Be Called Immuviron” by Benjamin Dudley 04-03-1993
  13. Philadelphia Tribune ” FDA to test AIDS Drug Introduced by Nation of Islam” by Denise Clay 05-04-1993
  14. The Washington Post “Chief of AIDS Agency is Suspended in District” by Amy Goldstein 06-17-1993
  15. Afro-American Red Star ” AIDS Protesters Say Race Determines Amount of Funding” by Shelia Higgs 07-03-1993
  16. The Washington Post “District Replaces AIDS Chief; Sources Link Action to Probe of Contract” by Amy Goldstein 07-10-1993
  17. The Washington Post “Where AIDS and Money Cross Paths; Gays and Minorities Dispute How Funds are Divided Up” by Amy Goldstein 07-11-1993
  18. The Washington Post “DC Fires 2 Officials In Handling of AIDS Contract” by Amy Goldstein 07-16-1993
  19. The Washington Post “AIDS Groups Go Head to Head with Whitman-Walker: Minority Coalition Says It Will Apply” By Amy Goldstein 08-25-1993
  20. Washington Informer “New coalition Formed to Secure Equal Funding for AIDS” 09-01-1993
  21. The Washington Post “DC AIDS Agency Firings Upheld; Director, One of 3 Dismissed, Says She will Contest Her Removal” by Amy Goldstein 09-02-1993
  22. Afro-American Red Star “They Cheated Me at 15; I am Still Fighting Today: Muhammad Says” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 09-18-1993
  23. The Washington Post ” Some Dismiss Interferon; Others Praise It; AIDS Treatment Seems Promising in a Few Tests; But Study in Uganda Finds it Ineffective” by Amy Goldstein 09-27-1993
  24. The Washington Post “A DC Clinic’s Controversial Rx For AIDS; Nation of Islam Official Promotes Unproven Drug, Seeks Grants and Wider Influence” by Amy Goldstein 09-27-1993
  25. The Washington Post “Blacks Gays in New DC AIDS Coalition Wary About Muslim Doctor’s Role” by Amy Goldstein 09-29-1993
  26. Afro-American Red Star “Deaths Lead Groups to Focus on Alternative AIDS Therapies” by Wayne A Young 10-30-1993
  27. The Washington Post “The Politics of AIDS; Caitlin Ryan Once Led the City’s Fight Against the Disease” by Judith Weinraub 11-29-1993
  28. Washington Informer “Rap HIV/AIDS Conference To Focus on African-Americans” 02-02-1994
  29. Afro-American Red Star “City AIDS Funds Directed at WWC” by Gwen Gilmore 02-05-1994
  30. New York Times “AIDS Woek of a Nation of Islam Clinic Questioned” 03-04-1994
  31. New York Times “As Farrakhan Group Land Job From Government, Debate Grows” by Steven A Holmes 03-04-1994
  32. Austin American Statesman “As Farrakhan Groups Win Contracts, Debate Grows” by Steven A Holmes 03-13-1994
  33. Washington Informer “Minority AIDS Group Protest DC Contract” by Alvin Peabody 03-24-1994
  34. The Baltimore Sun “Farrakhan Aide Charge Plot by Whites to Wipe Out Blacks” by James Bock 03-27-1994
  35. Washington Informer “Whitman-Walker Clinic Comes Under Sharp Scrutiny” by Alvin Peabody 03-30-1994
  36. The Washington Post “City Giving AIDS Clinic $1.2 Million; Whitman- Walker Chosen Over Minority Coalition” by Amy Goldstein 06-16-1994
  37. The Washington Post “AIDS Chief in DC Quits After 6 Months; Lack of Resources, Personal Needs Cited” by Amy Goldstein 06-23-1994
  38. Afro-American Red Star “Who Deserve Money to Fight AIDS?” by Gwen Gilmore 06-25-1994
  39. Washington Informer “City Awards AIDS Contract To Whitman Walker Clinic: Decision Called A ‘Death Sentence’ For City’s Poor” by Alvin Peabody 06-29-1994
  40. The Guardian “American Diary: Race, Religion, and AIDS” by Martin Walker 07-18-1994
  41. The Washington Post “Outsed DC AIDS Chief Settles Appeal With City; Ryan Was Accused of Meddling in Contract” by DaNeen L. Brown 07-19-1994
  42. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Trials Delayed Again” by Gwen Gilmore 08-06-1994
  43. Chalfont HealthQuest “Race, AIDS & Economics” by Shirley L Smith 10-31-1994
  44. Chicago Tribune “The Power and the Money” by William Gaines & David Jackson 03-12-1995
  45. Chicago Tribune “AIDS Hope or Hoax in a Bottle? Experienced Doctors say Nation of Islam’s Claim of Cure is Cruel Deception” by David Jackson & William Gaines 03-14-1995
  46. Afro-American Red Star “Dr Muhammad Gets Nod on NIH Interferon Trials: Abundant Life Clinic Under Fire” By Gwen Gilmore 03-2501995
  47. The Washington Post “US Begins Probe of District AIDS Clinic; Facility, Linked to Nation of Islam, Is Focus of Bias Complaints” by Amy Goldstein 03-28-1995
  48. The New Republic “The Homecoming” by Hanna Rosin 06-05-1995
  49. The Washington Post ” Advocate to Head DC AIDS Agency; New Chief Faces Expanding Diseases, Shrinking Resources” by Amy Goldstein 06-18-1995
  50. The Washington Post “My Record as an AIDS Activist” 07-03-1995
  51. Afro-American Red Star “Economic Trust Health Plan Finalized at Leadership Summit” by Frances Murphy 11-25-1995
  52. Afro-American Red Star “AIDS Trial to Begin in January” by Gwen Gilmore 12-30-1995
  53. New Journal and Guide “Kenyan Doctor’s Discovery in treating HIV/AIDS Will Be Tested in united States” by Leonard Colvin 01-17-1996
  54. Emerge “After the Million Man March” by George E. Curry 02-1996
  55. Afro-American Red Star “560 Sought For Kemron Trials: HIV Positive?” by Gwen Gilmore 04-27-1996
  56. Washington Informer “Inmates To Be Excluded” by Alvin Peabody 05-01-1996
  57. Washington Informer “NIH To Begin Kemron Drug Test” by Alvin Peabody 05-01-1996
  58. San Bernardino Precinct Reporter “HIV Study: Hundreds Sought for Kemron Trials” by Gwen Gilmore 05-09-1996
  59. New York Amsterdam News “AIDS and HIV Patients Sought For Kemron Drug Tests” by Gwen Gilmore 05-11-1996
  60. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Helped Lashaun Evans: AIDS” by Gwen Gilmore 05-11-1996
  61. Sacramento Observer “The Healthcare Disparity is Real: Distingushed Panel of African American Specialist Share Concerns at Summit: 05-22-1996
  62. Washington Informer “Unequal Facts Regarding African Americans and Health Care” 05-22-1996
  63. New York Voice “African American Healthcare Unequal” by Natalie Bullock 05-22-1996
  64. Afro-American Red Star “More Needed For Kemron Trial” by Gwen Gilmore 06-22-1996
  65. New York Amsterdam News “Experts Agree Black Life in America is Very Short” 08-31-1996
  66. Afro-American Red Star “IRS Stifles Abundant Life Clinic” by Desiree Allen Graves 09-07-1996
  67. The Washington Post “IRS Freezes Assets of AIDS Clinic Affiliated with Nation of Islam” by Amy Goldstein 09-13-1996
  68. Black Issues in Higher Education “Black Medical Community Boost AIDS Research: Howard, Meharry, King/Drew Recieve NIH Funding to Study Alpha Interferon” by Cheryl D. Fields 11-28-1996
  69. Afro-American Red Star “40 with HIV Needed for Kemron Trials” by Gwen Gilmore 05-10-1997
  70. New Journal and Guide “Landmark Work of African in Treating AIDS Disease Gets Skeptic Reception in America” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 05-28-1997
  71. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Trials Ended” by Gwen Gilmore 06-28-1997
  72. Philadelphia Tribune “Trials Underway For Possible AIDS/HIV Cure” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 08-01-1997
  73. New York Beacon “Life Abundantly: Exchangein Needles” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 06-17-1998
  74. New Pittsburgh Courier “Minister Says He’s Cured of AIDS” by Treshea N. Wade 04-28-1999
  75. The Washington Post “The Goat Doctor; Gary Davi Thinks G-d Gave Him The Secret Formula to Cure This Little Girl of AIDS. Now the Government is Giving Him the Chance to Prove It” by Lisa Frazier 04-09-2000
  76. The State of Black America 2002 “African Americans Confront a Pandemic” by Maya Rockeymoore
  77. Afro-American Red Star “Southeast Clinic Provides Alternative Health Treatment” by Micheal Zimmerman 01-20-2007
  78. The Washington Informer “The Test of HIV Testing” by George E Curry 06-25-2009
  79. The Washington Post “HIV Funds Bypassing Area’s in Need: Services Scarce in DC” by Debbie Cenziper 12-13-2009

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

Sources

  1. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology  “Black Muslims And The Police” by L. Brown 1965 Spring
  2. Washington Post “Police to Cooperate with Muslims in Mayfair Mansions Drug Patrol” by S. Horowitz and M Abramowitz 04-21-1988
  3. New York Times “Muslims Keep Lid on Drugs in Capital” by W. Stevens 09-26-1988
  4. United Press International “Farrakhan Unveils Drug Program in DC” 12-13-1988
  5. Los Angeles Times “Black Muslims – HUD Security Pact in Doubt: Housing: Farrakhan Group Appeared on Verge of Landing Contract for Venice Apartment Buildings by S. Doherty 01-15-1992
  6. Chicago Tribune  “DC’s Balck Muslim Dopebusters” by C. Page 04-23-1989
  7. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Guards Patroling Crime – Plagued Projects: Housing Group Affiliated with Lousi Farrakhan Will Provide Unarmed Night Patrols for Federally Subsidized Apartment in Venice” by C. Rivera 11-2-1992
  8. Chicago Tribune “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government, Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  9. Wahsington (AP) “HUD To Investigate Nation of Islam Security Contracts” by R. Powers 01-20-1995
  10. Washington Post “Security Firm Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  11. Jewish Telegraphy Agency “HUD Decision To Cancel Contract with Nation of Islam Wins Praise” 11-12-1995
  12. Washington Post “A Breach In Guards Invincibility” by L. Adams 09-02-1996
  13. New York Times “Nation of Islam Guards Ordered to Leave Project” by R. Hernandez 09-13-1996
  14. Time “Muslims At The Mayfair” 06-24-2001
  15. Racializing Justice, Disenfranchising Lives: The Racism, Criminal Justice, and Law Reader” “Crime Prevention In The African American Community: Lessons Learned From The Nation of Islam” by S. Gabbidon 2007
  16. The Washington Times “To Curb Chicago Violence Bring In The Nation of Islam” by A. Williams 10-11-2015
  17. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Offers To Patrol Housing Crime” by S. Doherty 12-22-1992
  18. Las Vegas Review “Nation of Islam Bids to Patrol Project” 01-04-1992
  19. Orlando Sentinel “Tenants Consider Hiring Farrakhan Group To Patrol” 01-05-1992
  20. Newsday “Muslims Bid or HUD Deal Blasted Jews Oppose Try for Patrol Contract” 01-05-1992
  21. Philadelphia Inquirer “What Do Farrakhan and Followers Do” by C. Lewis 01-22-1992
  22. Los Angeles Times “Farrakhan’s Group In Line For Security Pact Patrol” by K. Ellingswood 07-02-1992
  23. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Security Patrol Hearing Set Sept 15 Permit? by K. Ellingswood 09-06-1992
  24. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Firm Ok’d For Public Housing Patrols” by K. Ellingswood 09-16-1992
  25. Los Angeles Times “Patrols By Nation of Islam Cut Violence Security” by K. Ellingswood 12-27-1992
  26. Los Angeles Times “Islam Security Firm Taken Off Patrols at Venice Housing Complex Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-13-1993
  27. Boston Globe “Nation of Islam Walks Fine Line with Blacks” by A. Perlman 02-20-1994
  28. Chicago Tribune “Islam Firm Gets CHA Pact” 03-31-1994
  29. Chicago Tribune “State Investigates CHA Guard Contract” 04-01-1994
  30. Chicago Tribune “Vigils Recognize South Side’s Violent Turn” by S. Rhodes 04-04-1994
  31. Chicago Tribune “A Holistic Solution For The CHA” by F. McRoberts 05-05-1994
  32. Chicago Tribune “Muslim Affiliated CHA Guards Accused of Impersonating Cops” 06-27-1994
  33. Chicago Tribune “Guarded Optimism At Rockwell Nation of Islam Force Walking A Fine Line At Troubled CHA Complex” by F. McRoberts 07-06-1994
  34. Chicago Tribune “Four Guards At ChA are Found Not Guilty” 01-04-1995
  35. Sun Sentinel “HUD Checking Discrimination Charges” 01-21-1995
  36. Pittsburgh Post “Hiring of Nation of Islam Patrols Studied by Sub-Committee” 01-27-1995
  37. Chicago Tribune “Law Makers in furor Over Black Muslims” 03-03-1995
  38. Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam Contracts Examined” 03-03-1995
  39. Washington Post “Security Firms Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  40. Chicago Tribune “The Business of Security Nation Linked Guards Earn Tenant Distrust” By W. Gaines 03-13-1995
  41. Chicago Tribune “HUD Tired of CHA Failures Lane’s Exit Brims with Irony” by. F. McRoberts 05-28-1995
  42. Chicago Tribune ” HUD Didn’t Probe Nation of Islam Pacts Security Deals Linked to Farrakhan Group” by D. Jackson 10-13-1995
  43. Chicago Tribune “Nation of Islam Losing CHA Contracts” by D. Jackson 02-17-1996
  44. Orlando Sentinel “Nation of Islam Linked Company out of Bidding” 02-18-1996
  45. Austin American Statesman ” Farrakhan’s Tour Sparks Criticism” 02-22-1996
  46. Chicago Tribune ” Security Supervisor Convicted of Murder” by T. Wilson 08-23-1998
  47. Chicago Tribune ” US Drops Bank Fraud Charge Against Ex- CHA Chief Lane” by M. O’Connor 03-06-2001
  48. Chicago Tribune ” Court is Told of Store Plan at Lane Mall But Nation of Islam Aide Concedes No Steps Taken to Launch Project” by M. O’Connor 03-15-2001
  49. New York Times “Questions Shadow New Jackson Advisor” by S. Wax man 01-03-2004
  50. The Baltimore Evening Sun “Muslims’ Security Patrols Urged for Public Housing High-Rises” by R. Hills on 09-28-1992
  51. The Baltimore Sun “Muslims Patrols Proposed For Public Housing” by R. Hilson 09-29-1992
  52. The Baltimore Sun “For The Young, ‘X’, symbolizes the Hip Hints at their Heritage” by R. Hilson 11-17-1992
  53. The Baltimore Sun “Clean Up Blitz at Flag House Courts” by M. Simmons & A. Fletcher 06-02=1993
  54. The Baltimore Sun “Cleanup, better security, Transform Flag House Courts” by M. Fletcher 06-07-1993
  55. The Baltimore Sun “Transformation at Flag High Rises” 06-09-1993
  56. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Courts Celebrates Rebirth’ by E. Heard 06-13-1993
  57. The Baltimore Sun “Housing Commissioner Operates by His Rules Blunt, Savvy Henson Rejuvenates agency” by M. Fletcher 10-03-1993
  58. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Court: Suddenly Cleaner, Safer, Nicer” by M. Fletcher 11-01-1993
  59. The Baltimore Sun “The Good Old Days at Flag House Courts Woman, Daughter Remember Fondly” by M. Fletcher 11-16-1993
  60. The Baltimore Sun “Community Respect Arms Nation of Islam” by M. Fletcher 12-12-1993
  61. The Baltimore Sun “For Mfume, A Quick Divorce From The Nation of Islam Would Not be Easy” by S. Baer 02-02-1994
  62. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch “Nation of Islam’s Security Efforts Win Friends with Downtrodden” by A. Perlman 02-24-1994
  63. The New York Times “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  64. Afro-American Red Star “Jewish Group Levels Attack on Muslims Security Contract” by J. Williams 03-12-1994
  65. Austin American Statesman “As Farrakhan Groups Win Contracts, Debate Grows’ by S. Holes 03-13-1994
  66. The Baltimore Sun “Nation of Islam Security Wins Contract for Public Housing, Despite high Bid” by E. Siegel 05-05-1994
  67. Philadelphia Tribune “Baltimore Cancels NOI Housing Security Contract” by T. Spangler 11-14-1995
  68. The Baltimore Sun “Tenant Leaders Say Security Declines In Projects” by j. Jacobson 02-07-1996
  69. The Baltimore Sun “Security Issues Raised in Wake of Boy’s Slaying” by P. Herman & R. Irwin 02-28-1996
  70. The Baltimore Sun “City Fires High Rise Security” by R. Matthews 02-08-1997
  71. The Afro-American Red Star ‘Housing Authority Tells Wells Fargo to Step’ by T. White 02-15-1997
  72. The Baltimore Sun ‘business with Ties to Welch gets Contract; housing security operator includes NOI Aides” by W. Roberts 04-05-1997
  73. The Baltimore Sun “Schmoke Leaving Mixed Legacy” by G. Shields 12-05-1999
  74. The Baltimore Sun “end of a Pubic Housing Era High Rises” by E. Siegel 02-08-2001
  75. The Philadelphia Tribune “Jews divided on Muslim PHA Deal” by B. Wright 08-21-1992
  76. The Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam guards Bring Some Peace, Some Controversy” by T. Samuel 08-14-1992
  77. Philadelphia Daily News “Project Residents Files Suit” by S. Flanders 04-08-1993
  78. Philadelphia Inquirer “Three Sue Abbottsford Managers, Guards, Alleging Beatings” by T. Samuel 04-16-1993
  79. Philadelphia Tribune “Spread Report: Islam and Black Community” by B. Wright 06-18-1993
  80. New York Times “Muslim Guards: Security Unit Maintaining Pride” by M. Tabor 01-06-1992
  81. New York Times “An Inquiry Spreads Blame For Deaths at a New York Gym” by J. Berger 01-16-1992
  82. New York Times “Neighborhood Report: Coney Island; Islamic Guard Unit Outsed” by J. Steinhauer 11-13-1994
  83. Newsday “Assemblymen Gets some Help Brooklyn Democrat is Joined by GOP in Taking on Muslim Security Group” by B. Russel and M. Parente 02-08-1995
  84. Newsday “Brooklyn in Albany Shaking Up the Capitol” 03-28-1995
  85. New York Times “Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  86. New York Times “Slur by a Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  87. New York Amsterdam News “Tenants in Uproar as partaking Axes X-Men” by A. Sinclair 09-28-1996
  88. New York Amsterdam News “Van Blasts Pataki for Cancelling X-Men’s Pact” by J. Z. Browne 10-19-1996
  89. New York Times “X-Me’s Foe; Spotlight on a Corner” by A. Jacobs 10-20-1999
  90. The Villiage Voice “Truth Justice and the X-Men” by V. Srivastava 10-29-1997
  91. New York Times “dispute Over Guards With Farrakhan Link Moves toCourt” 05-25-1997
  92. Newsday “$200 M Suit Against Rep King Dismisssed” by Y. Ellen 11-07-1999
  93. New York Daily News “Farrakhan Linked Lawsuit Out” by r. Gerry 11-08-1999
  94. Los Angeles Times “Security Firm Taken Off Venice Patrols Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-14-1993
  95. The Washington Post  ” Nation of Islam Agency Says Jews Forced HUD’s Action” by L. Adams 11-11-1995
  96. Austin American Statesman “Nation of Islam Security Unit Threatens to SUe HUD” 11-11-1995
  97. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Agency Fights US Decision Court Asked to Rule in MD Housing Cast” 11-16-1995
  98.  Baltimore Jewish Times “Facing Eviction: Nation of Islam Security Agency Blames Jewish Influence for its Ousting From Baltimore’s Public Housing Projects” D. Conn 11-17-1995
  99. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Files Multi-million Dollat SUit Against HUD” A. McCarthy 11-18-1995
  100. Afro-American Red Star “Tenants are Losers” 11-18-1995
  101. The Washington Post ” Ruling Against Nation of Islam” 12-07-1995
  102. Baltimore Jewish Times ” NOI Security Lawsuit Dismissed For Lack of Case” D. Conn 05-24-1996
  103. The Washington Post “Muslim Dopebusters To Widen Patrol; At Rally Leaders Announce They’ll Enter Paradise Manor” J. Rupert 04-30-1988
  104. The Washington Post “The Uneasy Peace At Clifton Terrace; Muslim Guard in NW Draws Mixed Review” G. Escobar 05-28-1992
  105. The Washington Post “Urban Problems, Pastoral Settings” K. Harrison 08-20-1992
  106. The Washington Post “Yo! A Rapper’s Domestic Poliscy Plan; How Clinton Can Bring Hope to Alienated Black America” by Paris (Rapper) 01-03-1993
  107. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Firm Fights King, ADL” 03-11-1995
  108. The Washington Post “DC Hires Nation of Islam Guards for SE Complex; Public Housing Chief Cites Patrols’ Success at Other Developments in Nation” V. Loeb 05-04-1995
  109. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Guard Stabbed at SE Complex” by R. Cateneda and W. Melillo 05-12-1995
  110. New Orleans Times-Picayune “DC Residents Firght Development Guards” 05-12-1995
  111. The Washington Post “Potomac Gardens Quiet After Fights; Residents Ask City Officials to Keep Nation of Islam Guards on Duty” H. Harris 05-13-1995
  112. The Washington Post “DC Rehires Nation of Islam to Patrol Potomac Gardens” by V. Loeb 05-17-1995
  113. Afro-American Red Star “Nation of Islam Gets Temporary Contract” J.F. Brown 05-20-1995
  114. Afro-American Red Star “Potomac Gardens Contract Up For Bid” J.F. Brown 05-27-1995
  115. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Security Firm Seeks Backruptcy Protection” by V. Loeb 06-03-1995
  116. The Washington Post “Off-Duty Police Could Patrol Potomac Gardens” By B. Loeb 06-10-1995
  117. The Washington Post “Police Start Round the Clock Patrols at Potomac Gardens” by. R.H. Hamil 06-17-1995
  118. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Security Insecure in USA” G. Gilmore 07-08-1995
  119. The Washington Post “Ex-Guard Convicted in Assault Case” 07-15-1995
  120. New Pittsburgh Courier “HUD Orders NOI Contract Termination” by T. Spangler 12-02-1995
  121. DOPEBUSTER by Richard Muhammad Copyright 2019 printed by 48HrBooks

Dopebusters Drug Patrols

In the Spring of 1965, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology published a work on the threat of the Nation of Islam (NOI) to the police. A summary of the NOI of Islam beliefs was given. The religion centers on the idea that the ruling white man is destined for a fall. The members do see whites as the devil, but G-d has predetermined the end of the white man’s rule. Blacks are to separate and become an independent state before the fall to avoid catastrophe. So the movement has no reason to attack the police directly. The NOI was deemed not to be a direct threat to the police as a whole. The security/militia force Fruit of Islam (FOI) my resist police in small incidence, but there was no rebellion planned.

The reputation of the Fruit of Islam grows from the 1960s to the 1980s and residents at the Mayfair Mansions take notice. Violence and the drug trade had enveloped the community that was now nicknamed “Little Beiruit.” The Nation of Islam begins selling their paper in the complex and residents notice the drug dealers leave while the NOI was present. A group of concerned citizens asked the Nation of Islam to patrol the area to stop drug dealers. Abdul Alim Muhammad, leader of DC’s Mosque #4, agreed and the “Dopebusters” were born in 1988.

Police Chief, Maurice Turner, reluctantly agrees to work with the NOI Drug Patrols. The story of the Dopebusters drew national attention and continued violence at the Mayfair would draw negative attention to the city. Council members and many constituents in the Mayfair publically supported the effort. Turner decided that the NOI would only patrol and call authorities when they saw something. The guards were not to use any violence.

The problem in District 6, which included the Mayfair, was a small police presence. They had 235 officers patrolling the district, which led to the smallest ratio of officers to residents. [2] Because of increased attention from media, the chief agreed to concentrate his force at the Mayfair.[3] So those that used to deal at the Mayfair moved to neighboring housing projects.[3] The citizens at the Mayfair were grateful to have peace in their neighborhood, and they praised the guards for granting them peace. The NOI was allowed to fly their flag over the projects, as the Islamic Caliphs did in the old days. [3]

On April 19, 1988, a man with a shotgun confronted an NOI guard. The guard disarms the man by kicking the gun out of his hand. Ten men proceed to beat the man unconscious. An NBC news team catches the melee on film. The guards see that they are being recorded and began to attack the cameraman to ensure the footage is not aired on television. One of the guards was arrested along with the man that welded the shotgun. The story made headlines and Mosque #4 had to issue an apology. Residents of the Mayfair picketed in support of the guards. [17]

Dr. Alim Muhammad gave a press conference on April 30, 1988. Accompanying him were hundreds of supporters of the Nation of Islam patrols. In the speech, Alim Muhammad chastised the media in elevating the one instance of overreach, and not the fact they ended open-air drug sales in less than a month. He invites Christians, Jews, and fellow Muslims to join in the Patrols because they would soon expand to Paradise Manor. The most inflammatory aspect of the speech was the accusation that many police were involved in drug sales. This accusation that could not be proven hurt the ability of the security forces to work with the police.

The beating of a news crew was not the only instance of overreach. An apartment building manager accused the guards of attempting to extort $5,000 from her company.[6] However, the NOI guards would find other ways to finance their patrol in the way of government contracts.

The success from Mayfair made FOI guards a hot commodity in many low-income housing areas. The NOI Security Agency – Washington was incorporated in 1990 to win government contracts in security. In the same manner, other NOI security agencies emerged in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Chicago. The DC agency expanded its patrol to Clifton Terrace and Potomac Gardens.

The Clifton Terrace Patrols began in May of 1992. Most of the residents supported the new patrols. However, there was also vocal opposition. A group of men threatened the guards with violence on May 5. In response, a guard allegedly attacked resident James Earl Keech. Later that day, the unarmed guards encountered gunfire. Police were slow to arrive but arrested Taino M. Granum who had a stolen gun on his person. The event shows how cooperation between police and the guards began to break down. Both sides gave different accounts to the police. The public housing authority ended the security contract a short time later.

The American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) both took issue with an anti-semitic group getting government contracts. The ADL published a report in 1995 detailing contract discrepancies in the NOI security contracts. The ADL claimed that the NOI security agencies were directly connected to the NOI. Most of the evidence in the report came from the NOI newsletter, <u>The Final Call</u>. In the paper, the NOI praises the work of the security agencies as a victory for the Nation of Islam as a whole.

The report sparked outrage from the public. Bob Dole and Peter King, both Republicans, launch a senate investigation. If the security firm violated procurement law, Housing and Urban Development (HUD) would have to terminate the contracts. Peter King wanted the NOI listed as a hate group even though the American Civil Liberties Union did not list them as such.

HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros defended the decision to award NOI security firms contracts. Many members of The Congressional Black Caucus also supported the NOI effort. The firms were not legally linked to the Nation of Islam religious organization, and to Cisneros’ knowledge, the guards did not proselytize on duty. Therefore to deny them contracts would be religious discrimination. It is important to remember the Republicans had recently won both houses.

The six-week investigation concluded in March of 1995. There was no evidence of large-scale proselytizing while guards were on duty and the investigation confirmed the security firms were not linked to the Nation of Islam. There was also no evidence that the firms discriminated against non-Muslims or women. Most of the interviews with residents of the areas the security firms patrolled said the guards are more courteous than other private guards. Residents, white and black, both agreed their neighborhoods were markedly safer.

After the investigation Nation of Islam security wins a contract to patrol Potomac Gardens. The original contract was awarded under emergency conditions for two weeks at $30,000. Again most residences wanted the guards, but there was also strong opposition. One woman interviewed by the Washington Post said that she shielded a man from an NOI beating. The guards yelled “Black Power, Black Power” after the incident. [109]

On May 12, 1995 NOI guard James Baldwin was allegedly stabbed in the chest by resident Paul Sparks. The event was the third violent event during the two weeks Potomac Gardens had a patrol. Earlier an NOI guard was struck with a bottle. The guards retaliate by assaulting a resident suspected of throwing the bottle. The incidents sparked City Council to visit the project.

During the visit Councilman Frank Smith had this to say:

“There’s no question about the fact that the people who live over there see this as a form of relief from the drug sales…The sale of drugs around public housing complexes is ultimately a police problem, and it will not be solved in a lasting way at Potomac Gardens or anywhere else until a new police division responsible for public housing is created”.[112]

After the City Council visited they decide to extend the emergency contract another two weeks. The guards did stop open-air drug sales, even with a few instances of over-reach. By June 6, the emergency contract would end and the NOI would need to win the contact under normal bidding circumstances. Unfortunately, the Nation of Islam Security Agency flies for bankruptcy protection in June of 1995. The firm claims $620,000 in assets and $760,000 in liabilities. Of the liabilities, $53,000 was back taxes to Washington, DC. The DC Housing Authority had to take into account NOI Security’s financial state during the contract bid, and they lost their bid.

The Potomac Garden patrol was taken up by off-duty police officers. The officers were paid overtime with the same Federal funds that would have been used for the private guards. Ultimately, the responsibility for reducing crime fell back on the police. With increased police presence, the crime problem in Washington, DC subsided.

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

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