Search

Black Leadership Analysis

This is an unofficial Spiral Dynamics blog. It is not endorsed by D. Beck PhD.

Tag

Confederate

Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Conflict

The book began in January 1954. Dr. King was in Boston working on his Ph.D. thesis. He was newly married to a woman he met in Boston from Marion, AL, Coretta Scott. They were looking to move back to help in the fight against segregation. Many churches from all over the country were vying to make King their pastor. However, an offer from Dexter Ave Baptist Church in Montgomery, AL could not be refused.

Montgomery was known as the cradle of the Confederacy. Birmingham hosted the inauguration of Jefferson Davis and the served as the Confederacy’s first capital. A system of segregation that kept them out of critical industries stifled the economic development of black people in the town. The one exception was an integrated Army base. Montgomery was also home to an HBCU, Alabama State University.

Various human rights organizations planted the first seeds of integration. One of the integrationist groups was the Alabama Council on Human Relations. The council was interracial and focused on educating whites on the plight of blacks. There was also the NAACP which worked to bring court cases to make integration illegal. Many saw the goals of these two groups as opposed. However, King saw that the law could constrain individuals until education could enlighten them. Therefore he united these and other Alabama civil rights groups into the Citizens Coordinating Committee.

The first rumblings of a bus boycott came with the Fall 1955 arrest of Claudette Colvin. The teenager was not only arrested for refusing to give up her seat but was assaulted by the police while being arrested. The boycott never materialized because of disorganization in the various civil rights organizations. Black people also feared retaliation for speaking out. It became apparent that King had to build public consensus.

December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving her seat up to a white person on a city bus. The Women’s Political Council which Rosa Park led was the first to call for a boycott. Leaders from the various organizations agreed to take action. Fliers are printed up saying the boycott will start Monday, December 5, 1955. The newly formed Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) with Dr. King as the president will lead the boycott.

Alternatives must be created to get around town to ensure the maximum amount of participation. King convince everyone the 18 black-owned taxicab companies to commit their 250 cars to the struggle. Cabs would charge the same fee as the bus to get people back and forth to work. Others were even more improvisational, using donkeys and horse carts for transportation.

Once law enforcement got wind of the taxi coalition, work began to stop them. There was a law saying that a taxi had to charge at least $0.45 for the fare. The police commissioner decided on December 9, 1955, to start enforcing it. Now that the $0.10 boycott rate was made illegal a “Plan B” needed to be formed.

So over the weekend, MIA elicits 300 hundred volunteers to participate in a carpool system. Ninety dispatch locations were created all over the city and ready by the next Monday. Most of the stations were at local churches, and church vans were also used in the effort.

These drivers needed financial support. MIA embarked on an international press campaign that included speaking engagements in various cities. Donations come in from as far away as Tokyo. In the year-long boycott, they received over $250,000.

The carpool made the bus boycott possible. Many black Montgomerians could not walk to work due to age or disability. So those that wanted to stop the boycott understood they had to stop the carpool. Police began harassing drivers and riders. Police arrested passengers for hitchhiking while waiting at stops. Drivers were ticketed and arrested for minor traffic violations. King himself was arrested driving a few MIA members back to their homes after the meeting. The charge was going 30 mph in a 25 mph zone. Many carpool drivers had their insurance companies threaten to suspend coverage. Dr. King had to get his insurance from Lloyd’s of London.

Their perseverance in carpooling did not stop the Montgomery government from sabotaging the movement. A local club owner allowed the MIA to use his club during off hours as an office. The city threatened to pull his liquor license in retaliation. Harassment of the town forced MIA to change locations many times.

There were also efforts to turn King’s followers against him. Pamphlets and leaflets were created that portrayed King as attempting to get rich and famous on the backs of good Montgomerians. Those that live in Montgomery will pay the future cost of this outside agitator. Those that wrote the pamphlets labeled themselves concerned negro citizens, but most people knew they were Klansmen.

The most egregious attempt to intimidate King was the bombing of his home on January 30, 1956. Dr. King was not home at the time; his family was there alone. He rushes from the MIA meeting to confirm they are ok. Coretta’s father comes from Marion upon hearing the news. He offers to take his daughter and grandchildren back to Marion where they would be safe. Coretta refuses to leave Dr. King’s side showing her level of commitment.

Once Montgomery heard news of the bombing of Dr. King’s house bombing a mob of angry boycott supporters assembled in front of his house. Many of the supporters were armed and would not disperse when police told them to. King took the bullhorn told the crowd that his home was now safe and there was no need to stay. He reminded them of how important it was for the movement to remain non-violent. The crowd soon dispersed.

Members of the white citizens’ council dug up a law that made it illegal to conspire to sabotage a business. Montgomery courts gathered a grand jury and indicted 100 people including Dr. King for conspiracy to undermine a business. King turns himself into authorities February 22.

The defense team attempted to make the case that the boycott was to stop injustice not put the bus company out of business. Many Montgomerians came to give testimony of the abuse they received at the hands of bus drivers. The judge was unmoved and sentences King to 386 days of hard labor and a $500 fine. The sentence would have been worse, but the judge had leniency because King stopped a riot the night of the house bombing.

In the end, King will be victorious. However, it is important to remember what he and his supporters had to endure. It also serves as a lesson in what the system will do to maintain itself. Ultimately, this is the level of conflict one needs to survive to make a positive social change.

Background of UNLV Rebels

Many of the people in this blog work in academia in the United States. Many of these schools have Confederate mascots or Confederate statues. Here are a few examples of schools with Confederate mascots and how they handled them. I will also include my personal opinion on how they handled the situation.

University of Las Vegas Rebels

““New-Unlv-Logo-L.E.-Baskow_1_t1000””
The current mascot of the UNLV Rebels is “Hey Reb” pictured above. The UNLV’s official stance is the mascot is not connected to the Old South and has not been since the 1970’s after students protested. The UNLV website has the following quote on the name “Rebel”:

”In the 1960’s especially, it [Rebels] symbolized those who rejected convention, tradition, racism…Most of all, in southern Nevada it stood for those who had opposed northern domination in the state legislature and unwanted dependency upon Reno”

““beauregard-D65010_9_12A””

The original mascot of the UNLV was the wolf Beauregard clad in a Confederate uniform. Originally, UNLV was called Nevada Southern. The reason the school chose a Confederate mascot was Nevada Southern started as a branch the University of Nevada Reno. Nevada Southern had to declare independence from UNR. They saw themselves as modern day rebels and chose a Confederate motif for their school. To contrast the UNR Wolf Pack, Nevada chose the cartoon wolf in Confederate uniform winking and smirking. The UNLV official website contends that the mascot was not meant to offend, but be a playful jab at the larger school.

The Confederate motif did not stop at sports. The Nevada Southern student government called itself “The Confederate Students of Nevada Southern.” The largest school social event was the “Confederate Cotillion, ” and the school paper was called “Rebel Yell.”

Students began to protest the Confederate motif in the 1970’s. Student athletes that refused to wear the wolf logo led the protests. The students were allowed to vote on the wolf logo and the name “Rebel”in 1971. The students chose to get rid of the wolf but keep the name rebel. The wolf was officially dropped in 1975. In the 1970’s, the school transitioned between the UNLV Sun logo and a colonial soldier logo both pictured below.

In 1983 UNLV, transitioned to its modern day trailblazer. The original logo is below. After a few years, the mascot was named “Hey Reb!”. Over the years the logo has changed, but it always had a gray hat and long mustache.

Many people have been protested recently against “Hey Reb!”. In 2015 two hundred students protested the name. The Charleston killings sparked the protest. Senator Harry Reid also encouraged UNLV to change the name. There was even an internet campaign to replace “Hey Reb!” with Admiral Ackbar from Star Wars Rebel Alliance.

To UNLV’s credit, it is one of the most diverse campuses. A 2015 LA Times article claims it has around 50% minority enrollment. According to the same article all but one member of the undergraduate Black Student Organization supported the mascot. Most of the minorities polled in a recent survey admitted the mascot looked like a Confederate Soldier.

Historically the UNLV was not segregated, and a 1962 Rebel Yell article condemned the University of Mississippi for not integrating. Bill Casey, a black man, played quarterback for the UNLV rebel in 1968. The 1968 team also had the Confederate battle flag on the helmet. Casey said he did not experience any racism on that team.

Nevada’s Civil War and Civil Rights History

Nevada entered the Union in 1864. Of course, it supported the North which was the only way it could gain entry. Lincoln waved the population requirement to ensure there would be enough congressional votes to pass the thirteenth amendment.

Many of Nevada’s original settlers were from the South. There was always fear that Southern sympathizers would try to overthrow Union installation. The Knights of the Golden Circle, a later faction of the KKK, were very active in the area. However, a strong Union troop presence squelched any serious resistance. The part of Nevada that holds Las Vegas was part of Arizona at the time. The Arizona Territory sided with the Confederacy in the Civil War.

Las Vegas has a fraught racial history, and Nevada earned the name “Mississippi of the West.” A 1954 Ebony magazine article claimed the segregation there was as bad as any place in the Deep South. All black people had to stay in the slum of West Las Vegas. There is even a story of a black woman being sent to jail simply because there was nowhere else for her to stay. There were reform efforts but those that supported gambling fought against black people. However, blacks continued to fight and desegregated Casinos in the Moulin Rouge Agreement in 1960.

Justification of the name “Rebels”

Another justification is that the basketball team is known colloquially as the “Runnin’ Rebels.” In the 1980’s the team was dominant in their division, and they were known nationwide as “Runnin’ Rebels.” To change the name would break the basketball history. Also, another name would not have the alliteration and ring.

Personal opinion on if the Mascot should change

The UNLV mascot should be changed to something that can’t be mistaken for Confederate. Even though the official school statement says the mascot is a pathfinder, depictions of his head with only a gray hat would lead a person to believe the mascot is a Confederate soldier. A change as simple as changing the hat to the other school color of crimson and the name to HeyJeb! would be enough to stop any confusion.

Nevada has no official Confederate history. Nevada was part of the Union in the war. The Southern sympathizers in the state were jailed or executed. There is no one from the state they are honoring with the name Rebels.

Given the stereotype or perception that Las Vegas is a racist place, the University must work diligently to fight this misconception. Ultimately, qualified candidates from all minority backgrounds will be turned off by the mascot. It would also make more sense and be more historically accurate to honor the Union troops that fought in the Civil War or some other aspect of Nevada history everyone could celebrate. Ultimately, UNLV and the state of Nevada is bigger than a mascot.

By claiming the mascot is not a Confederate, with the name HeyReb and a gray hat, they are doing the minorities at the school the worst disservice. Some of the most severe psychological trauma happens a person is told what he sees, thinks, and feels is not real. To say that the people that created that mascot did not have it planned the entire time to portray him as a Confederate is silly. The creators of the mascot knew full well that if the mascot only had the hat, he could be seen as a Confederate. It doesn’t matter if the depiction of the entire mascot has him in a red, western-style coat. Most depictions have the mascot in a gray hat with the word Rebel underneath. The insult to black people’s intelligence is doubled when supporters act like the mascot and symbols could not easily be changed.

If the mascot does not change, school officials should expect black and minority students to not support the team unless they are playing and not buy merchandise. I have heard many times in my life that black students have less school pride or patriotism. Situations like the UNLV Rebels, makes black people feel disenfranchised. Once a person feels disenfranchised, they will act out or isolate themselves.

Return to Series

Sources
UNLV Rebels

  • Why are the UNLV sports teams represented by a Confederate rebel https://lasvegassun.com
  • Hey Reb! And “Rebels Nickname https://www.unlv.edu
  • At UNLV, A North-South divide over Rebel Mascot by N.Duara http://www.latimes.com
  • A brief history of our mascot http://www.unlvfreepress.com
  • The Curious Case of UNLV’s Not Racist Mascot http://www.deadspin.com
  • “Justice is Slow but Sure” by Q. Taylor Nevada Law Journal
  • Has UNLV distanced itself enough from Confederate past? http://www.lasvegassun.com
  • UNLV President says Rebel nickname and mascot should stay by I. Whitaker http://www.lasvegassun.com
  • Why are the UNLV Sports Teams represented by a Confederate mascot http://www.lasvegassun.com
  • What’s in a name: UNLV report on Rebel nickname yields interesting tidbits by I. Whitaker http://www.lasvegassun.com
  • UNLV Rebel Mascot Report Nov 2015 by Rainer Spencer Ph.D.
  • Nevada http://www.nps.gov
  • How the Confederacy claimed Southern Nevada during the Civil War http://www.reviewjournal.com
  • ”Mississippi of the West” in 1954 Magazine’s scathing article turned heads in Las Vegas http://www.lasvegassun.com
  • Civil Rights Act http://www.knpr.com
  • Black Rebel Philosophy and Analysis 


    Basic Philosophy
    Andrew Duncomb is a Confederate flag supporter from Seminole, Oklahoma. His support for the Confederate flag comes from his belief that the Confederate flag is not racist. He points to the fact the Northern border states also had slavery. Therefore, slavery did not cause the war. Also, many slave ships ported and disembarked from northern ports. The American flag has as much blood on it as any other flag. 

    He also points to all of the reasons to fly the Confederate flag. Many people want to honor their ancestors that died in the war. Others want to support and affiliate themselves with Southern culture. The flag can be flown out of heritage not hate. It can stand for rebel pride. 

    Black Rebel also realizes that there are people who fly the flag to signify racism. He implores his fellow southern heritage supporters to denounce these people. Specifically, he called out a white supremacy march at Stone Mountain. Stone Mountain is the largest Confederate monument in the country. Black Rebel recognized some of his friends went to the white supremacy rally. He assumes they did not have the proper information and if they did, they would not go. 

    Ultimately, Black Rebel wants to influence other black people to see the positive side of the Confederate flag. If more black people can be turned on to the Confederate flag, they can join him in celebrating Southern culture. At the least, the flag would no longer trigger them, and people can begin to come together. Black Rebel reminds us that we are all part of the human race. If we can keep sight of our place in the human race, then we can stop attacking each other and work together in harmony. 

    The media artificially create racial animosity so the elite can keep power. The government no longer follows the Constitution and strips our freedom every day. He specifically points to President Obama’s 2016 Executive Order. The Executive Order requires background checks while purchasing firearms in all establishments including gun shows. To Black Rebel, this is the beginning of tyranny and “When tyranny is law revolution is a must.” Black rebel uses this quote on tyranny frequently. 

    In Black Rebel’s August 2017 YouTube, he made some disturbing claims. He has been to many monument rallies and says that ANTIFA, the group protesting the monuments, instigates violence. According to him the police stand around and make no arrest. He calls on “patriots” to stand up and fight back. He makes clear that he is talking about physical altercations. He wants to “put them out of commission one by one.” He tells Patriots to “cause as much damage as possible in a short time… if some of them have to die so be it. ” He calls right-wingers not willing to go to the rally “cucks”. “Cucks” is short for cuckold, a white man that allows his wife to have sex with black men. It is used to call a person weak. 

    The problems of black people can be traced back to poor personal choice and bad parenting. The black community sets itself up for failure with such poor decision-making. When black people see the issues and don’t conform to the accepted behavior paths, they are ostracized. Because non-conformist are ostracized there is no one around to break negative habit patterns. Black society then descends further and further. Even Black Rebel admits that some people will have a more difficult time overcoming than others. However, self-reliance and independence can be achieved. 

    What Black Rebel has right

    He is right to attempt to use common humanity to bring people together. The flag is only colors and cloth as he said in his earlier videos. If there was a way to make people less triggered by the flag, it could help American advancement. 

    What Black Rebel has wrong

    The Civil War was chiefly about slavery. Some people fought for other reasons. However, the main reason was slavery.

    The idea that states with large slave populations willingly fought for the North needs to be debunked. Delaware only had 1,800 slaves by the time of the Civil War. Most of these slaves lived in one county. Maryland was under martial law in 1861, and Lincoln jailed southern sympathizers in the state. Kentucky initially declared itself neutral in 1861. Confederates invaded Kentucky, and the Union came to attack the Confederacy. The North then occupied the state to prevent another invasion. When Kentucky voted later that year to join the Union, there were Union troops outside the capital. Missouri sent armies to the Union and the Confederacy and had a star on both national flags. So no state with a large slave population supported the North entirely, and they all had internal fighting over slavery.

    Also, South Carolina seceded one month after Lincoln won the election and before he was inaugurated as President. In the Declaration of Immediate Causes, which is the document of South Carolina’s reason for leaving the union they state their constitutional right to own slaves. They asserted their constitutional right to own slaves because Lincoln was from the anti-slavery wing of the Whig party, now called Republicans. The previous Republican presidential candidate supported a national ban on slavery. Therefore, in the Declaration of Immediate Causes, they state their right to own slaves and the rights of all thirteen slave-holding states. 

    Even if all the Civil War history is ignored, the Confederate Battle Flag was flown by the Ku Klux Klan during night raids on black townships. The history of the Ku Klux Klan is well documented, and one blog post can not detail the issue. Other white supremacist groups later adopted the flag. 

    The modern use of the Confederate flag began in 1948 when the Dixiecrat party used the symbol at their national convention. The Dixiecrat political party was chiefly against desegregation and obstruction of the Civil Rights movement. The Confederate flag was added to the flag of the State of Georgia in 1956. The flag was raised over the South Carolina statehouse in 1961 on the centennial of the Civil War. Because of this timeline, many connect the display of the Confederate flag with those opposed to Civil Rights even if the official state documents don’t explicitly say it was done in support of Dixiecrats. 

    Even in spite of all this historical evidence, Black Rebel is allowed to have his own opinion on the Confederate flag. He is also allowed to wear the flag on his body and fly it on his property. However, he or other Southern Pride supporters can’t use the government to push their perspective on other localities. Black Rebel travels to many locations to fight to keep Confederate monuments.

    He also assumes that his friends in the Southern Pride movement that also go to rallies put on by White Supremacist simply don’t realize who is in charge of the rally. The idea his friends go to White Supremacist rallies out of ignorance is naive at best. If he was able to find information on who sponsored the rally, then his friends had access to the same information. Either his friends chose not to look, which means they don’t care to ensure they separate themselves from White Supremacist, or they know and simply are White Supremacist. If there is not a serious effort in the Southern Pride movement to separate themselves from racist, then the movement is racist. 

    Ultimately Black Rebel does not see the difference in Southern culture and Confederate symbolism. Black people will always be triggered by Confederate symbols, at least as a collective. The history is too deep, and the pain is too recent. However, it would be productive to introduce more black people to the rodeo and agricultural communities. Black Rebel has a pervasive background in these fields that traditionally do not have many black members. If he were to drop the Confederate symbols, many black people would be willing to become more involved in those communities if they knew they would see friendly faces. 
    Black Rebel will simply get into hot water with no personal gain by supporting the aggressive tendencies of the Alt-Right movement. The YouTube videos in which he threatens violence even in response to ANTIFA violence should be taken down. If someone commits a crime and they say Black Rebel inspired them, he could be implicated. The videos do not help Black Rebel or the Southern Pride movement. 
    Where is Black Rebel on the Spiral?

    Black Rebel is firmly in the Blue meme. The Neo-Confederate / Southern Pride movement is very similar to the Afrikaner Nationalism that Beck describes in The Crucible. In the crucible, he states the main elements of Afrikaner

    Nationalism:

    1. Common language and religion
    2. Common struggle
    3. Common vision of the future

    The Neo-Confederate movement has all these elements. They also justify their stances by talking about Southern respect and honor. Both the Afrikaner and Southern see themselves as victims of a well-funded Northern aggressor that did not understand their culture. Both have historically been seen as the oppressor of African people. Both people point out how the Northerners chastising them for oppressing Africans are no better. 

    In The Crucible Don Beck also speaks on removing the Afrikaner monument. In the book, Beck talks about how removing the monuments and says “If the Afrikaners feel they have to come together to fight for their language they will unleash a wave of destruction.” Well in 2017 there is a group on the left that could operate on the same standard. Later in that chapter, Beck talks about how it is important for those in the Integral community to facilitate a compromise that could save lives. 

    As a conservative, Black Rebel is not for change first or second order. 

    Return to Series

    Sources

    1. Fact Sheet New Executive Actions Reduce Gun Violence and Make Our Streets Safer. 

      www. Obamawhitehouse.archives.gov

    2. Here are Obama’s Executive Actions on Gun Control. http://www.forbes.com
    3. “Delaware” http://www.slavenorth.com
    4. “Maryland in the Civil War: A Volatile Border State Experience” http://www.civilwarmed.org
    5. “Kentucky’s Neutrality During the Civil War” history.ky.gov
    6. The State Historical Society of Missouri Guide to the American Civil War in Missouri http://shsmo.org
    7. “Where the Civil War began” https://www.visitmo.com
    8. Confederate States of America – Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union http://avalon.law.yale.edu

    Black Rebel (Andrew Duncomb)

    Andrew Duncomb supports Confederate flags and monuments. He became nationally known in 2015 when he staged a march against President Obama. He has been at all the recent rallies that support Confederate monuments. See his series below.

    Black Rebel Philosophy and Analysis

    Black Rebel Interview

    Powered by WordPress.com.

    Up ↑