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Indian Census and the Chawdar Reservior

This blog post is from the first half of Essay on Untouchables 3: Politics.

From Millions to Fractions

Untouchability is not a legal term. It is also not determined by physical features. It is a social concept that ostracizes a group. Dalits, the group that suffers from untouchability, have accrued disadvantage through generations. Birth determines untouchability. The condition can’t be changed.

Ambedkar lists the number of Dalits (Untouchables) in India as 50 million. The figure came from the 1931 census. The Indian government conducts a census every ten years.

There was no mention of caste in the first Indian Census of 1881. There was an attempt to add a caste question to the 1891 census, but the effort failed. The census of 1901 was the first successful attempt to add a question on untouchability. That year an untouchable was defined as one that most of the native people believe is untouchable. In 1911, there was a ten-question test to determine if one was a Dalit or part of the depressed classes. The questions involved if one eats beef or receives religious directive from a Brahmin. Many opposed the test on the basis that it perpetuates the idea of caste. The opposition did not win, and the question was on the 1921 census. Finally, the 1931 census confirmed there were 50 million Dalits pr one-fifth of the population.

The number of Dalits became vital after the formation of the Simon Commission. The group was formed to study and determine how best to rule India. One of the efforts they were undertaking was increasing the political power of Dalits through a reserved electorate. A reserved electorate would allow Dalits to vote for a select number of seats. The electorate and the candidates would all be from the Dalit Community.

The Lothian Committee in 1932 also attempted to win Dalits an appropriate amount of political representation. The effort to increase Dalit political power was opposed by various provincial committees that tried to make the case that untouchability no longer existed. The provincial committees believed the British wanted to reduce Hindu political power by splitting their share in government between touchables and untouchables.

There were also factions of Indian society that could benefit from an electoral reservation for Dalits. The first group is the economically underprivileged of India referred to as Backward Classes. They wanted to join the reserved electorate for Dalits. If this were to happen, the reserved voters would have more people from the Backward Classes than Dailts watering down the Dalit vote. Dalits would have supported a Backward Class reservation from the portion allotted to Hindus but not their own. The Backward Classes insisted on getting a reservation from the Dalits. When the Dalits refused, the Backward Classes joined the Hindus in their denial of untouchability.

The second faction that could benefit from an electoral reservation for Dalits, is Muslims. If the Hindu electorate split between Dalits and Hindus the relative power of Muslims increases. Muslims did not support the electoral reservation because they were pushing to have a larger representation in Parliament than their number in the population, which is called weightage. Hindus would only agree to weightage if they had an overwhelming amount of power in Parliament, and giving more power to the Muslims would not upset their majority. Seeding power would be beneficial to Hindus if it prevents the Muslims from splitting into their own country. The second reason Muslims opposed having a reserved electorate for Dalits is that many Dalit Muslims would leave the Muslim political contention to join with other Dalits. Indian Muslims still practiced caste, just not as severely as Hindus. The following quote from Ambedkar can be found in this essay:

Although Islam is the one religion which can transcend race and colour and unite diverse people into a compact brotherhood, yet Islam in India has not succeeded in uprooting caste from among the Indian Muslamans (Muslims).

Misinformation hampered future efforts to account for Dalits. Hindus began telling Dalits that the government planned to institutionalize untouchability. Dalits were afraid to register as such, thinking they would never be able to pass as a caste Hindu. Dalits would often attempt to pass as caste Hindu to avoid discrimination.

Ambedkar reiterates the need for Dalits to agitate at the end of this essay. If no one speaks out, there will be no way to increase Dalit political power.

The Revolt of Untouchables

Dalit resistance came in two stages. Before 1920, Dalits concentrated on protest and petitioning the government. After 1920, Dalits realized that petition the government has little success. Also, the national government declared that all public utilities and institutions were open to all citizens regardless of caste. Dalits moved toward Civil Disobedience and Direct Action.

One of the first civil disobedience campaigns was getting the ability to use roads near a temple called Vaikom in Travancore state. The campaign forced the government to move the road far enough away from the temple to allow Dalits to travel on it without polluting the temple.

The second great campaign was formed to grant Dalits access to Chawdar (Chavdar) Water Tank, located in Mahad, Bombay, in 1927. This tank revered as a reservoir for caste Hindus in the city. No one knows who originally built it, but it was declared public property in 1869. Dalits would frequently come to Mahad to shop and conduct other business. They would have to bring water from a well from a neighboring Dalit town or pay a caste Hindu to fetch water. In 1924, the city of Mahad adopted the laws allowing all citizens access to public facilities or institutions, including the water tank. However, the threat of caste Hindus violence kept Dalits away from the water tank.

Ambedkar organized a conference in Mahad in March of 1927 to discuss and organize around Dalit rights. On the first day of the conference, the 2,500 people in attendance felt frustrated in their ability to access water. Only Hindus could retrieve water from the tank, and they charged a premium price. On the second day of the conference, Ambedkar decides to take matters into his own hands.

After a rousing speech, Ambedkar entreats the participants in the conference to take water from the Chawadar Water Tank. The Dalits were energized, and all went with Ambedkar to the tank. This mass protest caused the Hindus to gather paralyzed with shock at first. Then the Hindus unleashed terror on the Dalits that participated in the protest.

After the protest, the Dalits realized what they were up against and decided to double down. A second conference was called for December 25th -27th, 1927. At the same time, the Hindus chose to fight back by petitioning the local Magistrate to forbid Dalits from using the water tank.

The Magistrate refused because the Hindus never proved that they had exclusive use of the tank. The Hindus then went to state court to establish their exclusive right to use the water tank. Ambedkar and a group of Dalits contested. At the beginning of the trial, the Hindus ask the court to issue a restraining order on Ambedkar to prevent him from returning to the tank. Ambedkar received the order days before the December conference.

With the trial in recess, Ambedkar leads the December Mahad Conference. On the first day, he decides to have a public demonstration of the injustices of the caste system. He burned a copy of Manusmirti, the religious book that codifies the caste system. Ambedkarites still commemorate the Burning of Manusmirti as a holiday.

The next order of business was deciding if they would disobey the restraining order and drink from the water tank in protest. The Magistrate communicated he would uphold the state-mandated restraining order. After careful deliberation, the group decided to comply with the restraining order to give themselves the best chance of winning the court case. It turns out that it was a good decision. Ambedkar won the court case, and Dalits were allowed to drink from the Chawdar Water Tank. Ambedkar cautioned over celebration as Dalits needed to continue fighting to prevent untouchability from being recognized nationally.

The December Mahad Conference went on to express the vision of the Ambedkar movement. The conference created a manifesto that declared equality is the birthright of all Indians. No one had a right to remove that equality without due process of law. The law was created to secure this equality and must be respected by all people. The caste system, as detailed in Manusmirti was explicitly created to disadvantage Dalits. Those in this conference vow to oppose all literature, modern or ancient, that promotes the caste system. Those in the conference also vow not to do the jobs mandated by their caste. Specifically, transporting dead animals and cleaning homes of the dead.

Ambedkar makes sure to attack the idea that Dalits brought scorn onto themselves by eating the dead animals they transport. Many attempts to claim the Hindus repulsion at Dalits were justified because the practice of eating rotten meat is disgusting. Ambedkar reminds the audience that Dalits would only eat rotten meat if they have no other options. The cruelty of the caste system prevents Dalits from finding any other work. Also, the law mandates they participate in scavenging to keep the only housing they were allowed to live. Legally mandated work for no money is no better than slavery.

The Dalits must be strong to not obliged the work their caste mandates. The civil disobedience Ambedkar prescribes would serve two functions. The first is to increase self-esteem and self-respect. The second is to strike a blow against the Hindu Social Order. The current oppression only last because Dalits comply.

Held At Bay

Hindus view the advancement of Dalits as a personal attack. As the situation stands now, the Touchables are above the Untouchables. They are not one people. They are people from two different nations. By resisting caste, the Dalit seeks to elevate himself and the perceived expense of the Touchables. The Touchables will use any means necessary to maintain the status quo.

One example of this ruthlessness of caste Hindu oppression was in the immediate aftermath of the Chawadar Water Tank demonstration. It began with the Dalits exercising their right to tank water for the city reservoir during the Mahad Conference. Once the caste Hindus in the area saw the demonstration, a rumor began that the Dalits would soon enter the temple. Two hours after the water tank rally, the conference members were having a community dinner. A mob of Hindus attacked the Dalits with sticks. Many of the Dalit leaders kept their brothers from fighting back, stopping a much larger riot.

After the conference ended, Hindus from Mahad sent messages to government officials from the districts where conference delegates lived. Hindus assaulted many of the conference delegated on the way home or once they returned home.

Another example of oppression happened in Dholka Talvka, Bombay when Dalits attempted to integrate a school. Many of the Hindu parents did not want their child sitting with Dalits. They pulled their children from the school. The tension from the integration efforts led to a Brahmin to attack a Dalit. The Dalit men of the community protested at the police station to ensure something would be done. When the men were away, Hindus attacked the Dalit section of town. The Hindu mob included women. There was also another force of Hindus waiting to ambush the men after their demonstration at the police station. The ambush plan was thwarted, but Dalits still sought redress for the attack on their women and children. To further frustrate the Dalit’s effort, the Hindus poured kerosene in the Dalit well. The Dalits only had this one water source.

The Dalits appealed to Gandhi through Harijan Seva Sangh, Gandhi’s organization that promoted Dalit Civil Rights. They did nothing. Not only did they do nothing, they forced the Dalits to remove their complaint from the Magistrate and promised them no harm would come to them. Dalits had no way of enforcing Gandhi’s promise.

After reflecting on the incidents detailed above, one must wonder why Dalits are always on the bottom of the hierarchy. Ambedkar proposes a few reasons. They are a minority and scattered throughout the country. Also, the idea of caste has infected the mind of Dalits. Even within the Dalit community, there is a Caste hierarchy. There needs to be a common ethos to unite Dalits.

One example of a minority community with a unifying ethos is the Muslims. When a Muslim was attacked, the group unites in retribution. Much of the reason Hindus treat Muslims better is fear of a blood feud starting between Hindus and Muslims. The idea of a unifying ethos does not stop and India’s border. Muslims from other countries would not be afraid to defend their brothers in the subcontinent.

One way Hindus can exact revenge on Dalits is through violence. If the Dalits go to the police, the police rarely act. Most of the police are caste Hindus themselves. Even if they investigate the infraction, it is rare other caste Hindus would testify against their own.

However, the much more effective form of Hindu reprisal is the social boycott. Dalits own minimal economic infrastructure and depend on Hindus for employment and commerce. If a Dalit is seen at a protest, he can be fired. If he is not fired, Hindus could refuse to sell him goods. Both firing someone from a job or refusing to sell products to Dalits is legal. The only recourse for Dalits is political action.

Their Wishes Are Laws Unto Us

When Hindus are asked why they oppose the advancement of Dalits, they don’t reply with how it physically harms them. Hindus respond that it is an offense to their Dharma. Dharma means the privileges, duties, and obligations of a man as a member of the Hindu community, caste, and age group. Manusmirti sets each person in their station in life, responsibility, and benefits. A Smriti is a religious holy book for Hindus. They have several, but of all of them, Manusmirti is the most prominent and influential.

Manusmirti codifies who is inside and outside the social order, called Chaturvarna. Chatuvarna is a hierarchy with the Priest class at the top and the Menial class at the bottom. Those outside of Chaturvarna are called Bahayas, excluded. The denotation of Bahayas is the Western equivalent of being a non-citizen. Bahayas were never meant to have rights under the social order.

Bahayas are the present-day untouchables. To illustrate how the denotation of outsider plays out in current times, Ambedkar uses the example of the Balais. Balais is a sub-group of the Untouchables. The local caste Hindus attempted to force the Balais to confirm to caste rule. The Balais refused and the Hindus retaliated. Balais were not allowed to get water from village wells or cross land owned by Caste Hindus. Not being allowed to cross land owned by Hindus put some Balais cattle farmers out of business because the property of Caste Hindus surrounded their land. These draconian laws force Balais to leave local municipalities they had occupied for centuries.

It is important to remember at the time of the persecution of the Balais there was no legal enforcement of the Caste System. Ambedkar illustrates how custom could be more powerful than the law. Every social group has habits in how they act, feel, and value various things. Even when a new individual joins the group, they are pressured into conformance. To challenge the group norm could lead the new entrant to become an outsider himself.

To counter the power of Chaturvarna propagated by custom, laws must be passed to destroy the Caste System actively. As one can see, the Protestant Reformation would not have been successful without laws separating church and state. Laws were also needed to make state superior to the church. Without an active degradation of church authority, it would have regained its place as supreme authority.

Dr. A. A. Muhammad Analysis

What Dr. Alim got right

He is a superb advocate for holistic medicine and improving overall health in the black community. The Hoop House concept is an actionable plan to address the problem of food deserts. Urban gardening will not only improve the nutrition in underprivileged communities; it will increase fellow feeling amongst those that participate in the effort. The root of good health is nutrition. In a community with little money for health insurance, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. In addition, the building of hoop houses will not require government help.

He also brought an awareness of Ayurvedic medicine and Yoga to the black community. Without Dr. Alim, many black people would not have been exposed to any eastern medicine. Other avenues to eastern medicine are price prohibitive for poor people.

Advocacy for prostate cancer awareness is also vital in the black community. Because we are oppressed anything that can threaten virility can do severe damage to our psyche. Back in the 1990s when his work started losing a prostate could mean the loss of the ability to get an erection. Even the rectal exam could make men feel emasculated.

The economic devastation of Iraq through government sanctions was a subject few would discuss. Dr. Alim shined a light on the subject and urged Blacks to do what we could for those overseas. The act of discussing the US embargo on Iraq shows a glimmer of a world-centric perspective.

The most significant campaign of Dr.Alim’s life was the Dopebusters campaign. He provided a community solution when the government decided to underfund police in DC. Most stood by and watched DC neighborhoods fall apart. Dr. Alim created a program to at least retard the cancerous growth of crack.

Is Dr. Alim racist or antisemitic?

No evidence could be found of Dr. Alim advocating violence toward anyone for any reason. Also, there was no evidence that he prevented someone from improving their life due to race. In fact, in the Yale speech, he said NOI member that has a weapon can be expelled from the organization. He repeatedly said that the NOI is a peaceful movement and any vengeance will be taken out by Allah. So to equate him to the Ku Klux Klan or neo-nazis is a stretch.

Most often he is accused of supporting Steve Cokley’s conspiracy theory on Jewish doctors spreading HIV to babies in Africa. After evaluating the evidence presented he never confirmed the conspiracy only said the Cokley is a reputable researcher. Dr. Alim never evaluated the claim for himself. To hold Dr. Alim responsible for something, another person said that is not even in the Nation of Islam would be unfair. Dr. Alim said HIV was created and spread by the US government.

The worst statement Dr. Alim made was about Mayor Barry saying he “should not bow down to the Jews.” This statement is insensitive, yet not promoting violence to Jews directly or indirectly. So the statement can be considered a gaffe more than evidence of hate toward anyone.

In Dr. Alim’s work, he partnered with an Indian American and a Chinese American to create Abundant Life. Later he worked with Dr. Freddie Ulan, a white man, on Nutritional Response Testing. So he has worked with people outside of his race and faith for most of his career.

Finally, he works in conjunction with the Church of Scientology. The vast majority of the members of that organization are white. Therefore it would be difficult to say a black man that worked with Scientologist and took Scientologist training is racist. Racism is defined as advocating for violence, harassment, or destruction of property of other people based on race. He also would not fit the definition of racist if it is defined by impeding a person from advancement economically or politically because of race.

It would also not be fair to say Dr. Alim is racist for his affiliation with the Nation of Islam alone. If the NOI is evaluated from the lens of all Blue meme ethnocentric religions, it is not worse than any other. The belief of the NOI is the Mother Plane will return and lay waste to the earth and create a new Muslim social order. It is no different from the belief the Jesus will return lay waste to the current order and create the Kingdom of Heaven. Indeed, the Nation of Islam will not accept white converts, but many sects of Judaism will not accept those that are not ethnically Jewish. Master Fard Muhammad taught that whites are the devil, as the bible says many of the Hebrew’s neighboring tribes were evil. Therefore, the NOI might have racist members, but all those in the NOI are not racist by virtue of being members.

What Dr. Alim got wrong

What Dr. Alim gets wrong is the idea of a grand conspiracy that is thwarting blacks and every turn or a grand plan to kill all black people. It is true that there are nefarious plots conducted by individuals, but there is not grand plan that every white person is involved with to destroy black America.

When Dr. Alim was in charge of the Dopebusters program, he claimed that elites were all working against him. In reality, he had support from Democrats like Maxine Waters and Republicans like Jack Kemp. The NOI Security Agencies won contracts when they were not the lowest bidder. The effort stopped because the companies went bankrupt not because a law was created to stop them from getting contracts.

There were some Jewish groups like the Anti-defamation League (ADL) that were against the NOI getting government contracts. Their motivation was various insensitive things high profile leaders of the NOI said, not arbitrary hate for Muslims. In essence, there was a legitimate call for concern on the part of Jews. It is reasonable to be worried that if the NOI had the authority to police, they could begin to commit racial violence. The Senate conducted an investigation that vindicated the NOI against claims of racism. Therefore there was a legitimate concern that was evaluated and determined to be unfounded.

The Dopebuster program ended because the company went bankrupt. To blame a conspiracy by the elite only obfuscates from the real issue. Unless there is a thorough evaluation of what happened, people can’t improve community policing efforts in the future. The idea of a grand conspiracy will discourage future community policing attempts because people will believe the effort will be thwarted.

Another conspiracy that never materialized was the government was going to use the 2009 swine flu outbreak to force vaccinations. That never happened. It is currently 2019, and there has been no effort to force people to get vaccinated. There was no plot to infect a large portion of society with a virus to cause a mass extinction. Wild assertions like the government is attempting to exterminate black people through vaccines only raise suspicion of vaccine effectiveness in the black community. For a group of people with limited access to healthcare, it is essential to implement all low-cost preventative measures like vaccines.

The most outrageous conspiracy theory is the idea of an earthquake machine at the HAARP weather research facility causing the 2010 Haitian Earthquake. There is no scientific method to heat a tectonic plate. A man that graduated from medical school is smart enough to a tectonic plate can’t be heated artificially. By making such a wild conspiracy theory, it distracts from the real issue of America’s foreign policy toward Haiti. Because the US has not allowed the country to be fully sovereign, Haiti couldn’t build proper infrastructure. Having people advocate from Haiti spewing complete nonsensical assumptions only hurts Haiti.

Where is Dr. Alim on the Spiral?

Dr. Alim is a Blue meme spiritual leader. Even though he has an extensive background in science, most of his worldview is under-girded with NOI theology. The world is a dichotomy between the elite and aboriginal people. The elite are all in cahoots to systematically kill and oppress the aboriginals.

In the Crucible, Don Beck speaks of how once one sees the world in a dichotomy, they often dehumanize those seen as others. The dehumanization of others causes much of the “white man is the devil” rhetoric prevalent in the NOI. Even though Dr. Alim is more moderate than the average NOI member, he often indulges in wild conspiracy theories with little evidence. An example of a wild conspiracy theory is the idea that the US government has an earthquake gun.

The super-ordinate goal of Dr. Alim and the NOI is to unite Black America under their brand of Islam. NOI Islam is not the same as orthodox Islam. The most significant theological difference is the belief in “The Wheel,” a giant UFO that houses NOI leaders after death. So the NOI historically was against other versions of Islam. However, Dr. Alim never spoke against other forms of Islam.

One area that does not fit the traditional idea of the Blue Meme is motivation based on fear and guilt. The NOI doesn’t believe in an afterlife. It appears Dr. Alim believes one can live over 100 years with proper diet and exercise. NOI motivates people through the authority of the leaders. Dr. Alim exemplifies the adherence to authority through leadership in how often he references Louis Farrakhan when speaking.

Analysis of Kemron Trials

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad made two bold claims about the industry of HIV treatment. The first is the disease, and the lack of a cure in the 1990s was the result of a conspiracy to kill black people. According to Dr. Alim, the US government created HIV as a depopulation effort. The second claim was he was discriminated against in contracting because he was straight Black Muslim. Both of those claims will be evaluated in more detail.

Was HIV/AIDS a government experiment to kill Black people?

It is not possible to know how AIDS came to be. If it was developed as an instrument of biological warfare, the government would never admit to it. However, one can evaluate the current availability of treatment to determine if there is an effort to cure whites while keeping blacks sick. According to the CDC in 1990 of every 100,000 people that died 10.2 died of HIV. In 2016 of every 100,000 people that died 1.8 died of HIV. So the disease is far less deadly now than at any other time.

The CDC has also created many initiatives to help the Black Community fight HIV/AIDS. One of these initiatives is “Act Against AIDS.” One of the branches focuses on removing the stigma of HIV through internet videos. These videos showcase people of color affected by the disease. They also present HIV information that the average person would not know. Another branch encourages testing and has enlisted singer Trey Songz as a spokesman. Ultimately the CDC is implementing a holistic plan to reduce infection rates in the African-American community.

Part of the reason for such a stiff decline in HIV/ AIDS deaths is the availability of free or low-cost treatment. One of the largest providers of free and low-cost AIDS treatment in the country is the Whitman Walker Clinic. Even during the 1990s two-thirds of their patients were minorities and four-fifths of the people in their assisted housing were black. In 1994, two of the four former presidents of the organization were black.[40] They also had black board members and health care providers. The clinic has expanded to include mental health care and dental care. Whitman Walker is a stellar example of racially aware medical treatment.

There are indeed more Blacks living with HIV by percentage than any other racial group. However, there are also many programs to address the issue in our community spearheaded by government. Concocting wild conspiracy theories or stigmatizing the Black LGBT community as brainwashed is not helping anything. What will help, is reducing stigma and increasing awareness about treatment. There is no grand scheme to kill off blacks with HIV. There is no real evidence that such a plan ever existed.

Was Dr. Alim discriminated against because he was a straight Black Muslim?

Even though Dr. Alim did not receive the multi-million dollar contract to become the District’s primary healthcare provider, he won several smaller contracts. According to the Chicago Tribune he won $213,000 in 1993 and $333,000 in 1994 through the Ryan White Fund.

Dr. Alim was indeed treated unfairly when applying for the 1993 contract for an HIV/AIDS media campaign. He submitted his complaint and the director of the DC HIV/AIDS Agency was forced to resign. His compliant was taken seriously and he was given the contract after the conclusion of the investigation.

Previous medications for AIDS such as AZT and DDC were indeed used for several months before clinical trials began. But when they were implemented in the late 1980s the medical community was desperate for a treatment. By the mid-1990s, there were four medications to treat HIV/AIDS. So there was not the same urgency to move drugs along. The reduction in urgency led to Dr. Alim’s cure having a slower progression through FDA approval.

It is also important to remember the Nation of Islam has made inflammatory statements about Jews, LGBT people, and Whites. The NOI believes that homosexuality is not native to Africa and solely the result of colonization. Even a cursory reading of the Final Call one will find references to “Satanic Jews.” Whites are called “devils” in the teachings of Master Fard Muhammad. Therefore, whites, Jews, and LGBT people have every right to question and work to stop the NOI from gaining influence. Black people would act no differently toward a group that made similar statements about them. Even though the NOI has never acted violently toward any of the groups in question, inflammatory rhetoric can spark a backlash that could impede business deals.

To be clear, the NOI believes homosexuality to not be natural to black people. Colonial brainwashing or the effects of various drugs induce the condition. They believe there is a grand conspiracy to effeminate black men and make black women more masculine. The goal is to reduce the population of black people. Farrakhan liberally uses LGBT slurs in his speeches and links homosexuality to pedophilia. He claims the Jewish Talmud sanctions both abominations. Once one realizes Farrakhan’s position, it makes sense that Jews, and LGBT people fought against him.

It is also unrealistic to think a company headed by a man that publicly accused the government of creating HIV/AIDS to kill black people would have no problems winning government contracts. In reality, if the government wanted to railroad him, that could charge him with slander. The government could have also labeled the NOI a hate group. The fact he won contracts and a medical trial from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) shows he was not signaled out or there were not a large group of government officials working against him.

Although there was not a grand conspiracy to railroad Dr. Alim arbitrarily because he was a straight Black Muslim, there were people that did not want him to succeed. Their motivation was more than likely due to his public inflammatory statements and genuine concern about how he would treat patients. If a White doctor were part of an organization that made similar statements, blacks would be up in arms and advocating for him not to be awarded contracts.

So if the clinic had any discrepancy in a tax filing, then, of course, people were going to be looking for it. Once found, they would use the harshest penalties to slow down the work of the clinic. It is also possible the NIH purposefully gave the trial oversight to a company in financial trouble. They could have felt political pressure not to deny a black company a trial, so they sandbagged them with a company that was not financially solvent. It is just as possible that they didn’t believe the drug to be effective due to the previous trial by the World Health Organization. No reason to give the best resources or oversight company for a drug that is more than likely, not effective.

It is also odd that if the drug was effective, they had such trouble finding participants for the study. There were over a dozen medical facilities involved with the study all over the nation. Even if the IRS hampered operations at the Abundant Life Clinic, there were two other facilities in the DC area that could participate in the trial, Howard and Georgetown University. With HIV/AIDS being one of the most prevalent diseases in the country, getting 560 patients should have been no problem even with a few clinics out of commission.

It is far more logical the treatment didn’t work, and those that received the treatment did not recommend it to friends that were also suffering. Even in all the articles on the subject reviewed for this blog, only two people claimed to be cured, Lashaun Evans and Demetrius Muhammad. All the other reports of success came from doctors using alpha-interferon therapy. The only evidence from a participant in the clinical trials came from Rocky Thomas that had an eight-year-old daughter with AIDS. In a 2000 article, she said the Kemron only worked for a short amount of time. Then she took her daughter off the medicine because it was ineffective.[75]

Dr. Alim has not used Alpha Interferon therapy since 2009.[79] He uses sour raw milk to treat viral infections. He said in a 2018 interview that if a person takes raw milk and leaves it out for four days at room temperature, it will properly sour. Once a person consumes the sour milk, the body will absorb the proper mix of all the various interferons. There are more than sixteen types of interferon. So Dr. Alim no longer uses Kemron.

Why is this important?

The NOI has performed many vital services for the Black community. They have reformed many people returning from prison, cleaned up drug-infested neighborhoods, and given insightful commentary on the plight of black America. However, they do Black people a disservice by promoting wild over-arching conspiracy theories that all whites or the entire government are conspiring to kill blacks. There have indeed been instances such as “The Tuskegee Experiment” when the medical community has failed Blacks. However, there is no grand conspiracy involving the entire government to kill Black people. A sober evaluation of Dr. Alim and the Kemron trials shows that. Besides, HIV/AIDS is now a completely manageable disease with many avenues to receive free or low-cost care, not the cause of Black genocide.

Currently, the NOI is pushing an anti-vaccination campaign. They are using many of the same wild conspiracy theories used in the 1990s on the origin of AIDS. Now the NOI says that vaccines cause autism. The claim that vaccine caused autism has been debunked since 2011, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Hopefully, parents will do all the proper research before deciding on vaccination.

Not getting vaccinated could be doubly damaging for a community with limited access for healthcare due to poverty. Unfortunately, a group as prominent as the Nation of Islam would not give their followers and supporters all the necessary information. It is even more unfortunate when outlets like “Sway in the Morning” or “The Breakfast Club” help promote misinformation. I am sure the readers of this article will make the right decision in regards to vaccination.

Sources

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/autism.html

Kemron Trial Sources

Kemron Trial Sources

  1. The Washington Post “The Resurrection of Malcolm X: 25 Years After His Assassination” by David Mills 02-25-1990
  2. The Philadelphia Tribune “Kenyan Researchers Find Possible AIDS Cure” by Sherry Stone 11-05-1991
  3. The Philadelphia Tribune “Can It Be Cured? Kenyan Doctor Finds Interferon May Be Solution To AIDS Epidemic” by Sherry Stone 11-26-1991
  4. Chicago Citizen “AIDS Treatment Drug Reports 90% Success Rate” by Lisa Ely 04-12-1992
  5. Indianapolis Recorder “Out of Africa: New AIDS Drug Said to Work Miracles” by Audrey Gadzekpo 05-23-1992
  6. Washington Informer “Ward 8 Health Fair Deemed Bug Success” 07-29-1992
  7. Los Angeles Sentinel “Nation of Islam Draws Battle Lines on Deadly AIDS Virus” by James Bolden 08-20-1992
  8. Afro-American Red Star “NMA to Hear Need For AIDS Drugs” by Malik Shabazz 10-24-1992
  9. Afro-American Red Star “NIH, NMA agree on AIDS Trial” by Malik Shabazz 10-31-1992
  10. The Washington Post “NIH Reverses Decision on Controversial AIDS Drug” by Sally Squires 11-31-1992
  11. New York Amsterdam News “Dr. Justice Accuses ABC-TV of Airing ‘A Pack of Lies'” by J. Zamgha Browne 11-28-1992
  12. Afro-American Red Star “New AIDS Medicine To Be Called Immuviron” by Benjamin Dudley 04-03-1993
  13. Philadelphia Tribune ” FDA to test AIDS Drug Introduced by Nation of Islam” by Denise Clay 05-04-1993
  14. The Washington Post “Chief of AIDS Agency is Suspended in District” by Amy Goldstein 06-17-1993
  15. Afro-American Red Star ” AIDS Protesters Say Race Determines Amount of Funding” by Shelia Higgs 07-03-1993
  16. The Washington Post “District Replaces AIDS Chief; Sources Link Action to Probe of Contract” by Amy Goldstein 07-10-1993
  17. The Washington Post “Where AIDS and Money Cross Paths; Gays and Minorities Dispute How Funds are Divided Up” by Amy Goldstein 07-11-1993
  18. The Washington Post “DC Fires 2 Officials In Handling of AIDS Contract” by Amy Goldstein 07-16-1993
  19. The Washington Post “AIDS Groups Go Head to Head with Whitman-Walker: Minority Coalition Says It Will Apply” By Amy Goldstein 08-25-1993
  20. Washington Informer “New coalition Formed to Secure Equal Funding for AIDS” 09-01-1993
  21. The Washington Post “DC AIDS Agency Firings Upheld; Director, One of 3 Dismissed, Says She will Contest Her Removal” by Amy Goldstein 09-02-1993
  22. Afro-American Red Star “They Cheated Me at 15; I am Still Fighting Today: Muhammad Says” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 09-18-1993
  23. The Washington Post ” Some Dismiss Interferon; Others Praise It; AIDS Treatment Seems Promising in a Few Tests; But Study in Uganda Finds it Ineffective” by Amy Goldstein 09-27-1993
  24. The Washington Post “A DC Clinic’s Controversial Rx For AIDS; Nation of Islam Official Promotes Unproven Drug, Seeks Grants and Wider Influence” by Amy Goldstein 09-27-1993
  25. The Washington Post “Blacks Gays in New DC AIDS Coalition Wary About Muslim Doctor’s Role” by Amy Goldstein 09-29-1993
  26. Afro-American Red Star “Deaths Lead Groups to Focus on Alternative AIDS Therapies” by Wayne A Young 10-30-1993
  27. The Washington Post “The Politics of AIDS; Caitlin Ryan Once Led the City’s Fight Against the Disease” by Judith Weinraub 11-29-1993
  28. Washington Informer “Rap HIV/AIDS Conference To Focus on African-Americans” 02-02-1994
  29. Afro-American Red Star “City AIDS Funds Directed at WWC” by Gwen Gilmore 02-05-1994
  30. New York Times “AIDS Woek of a Nation of Islam Clinic Questioned” 03-04-1994
  31. New York Times “As Farrakhan Group Land Job From Government, Debate Grows” by Steven A Holmes 03-04-1994
  32. Austin American Statesman “As Farrakhan Groups Win Contracts, Debate Grows” by Steven A Holmes 03-13-1994
  33. Washington Informer “Minority AIDS Group Protest DC Contract” by Alvin Peabody 03-24-1994
  34. The Baltimore Sun “Farrakhan Aide Charge Plot by Whites to Wipe Out Blacks” by James Bock 03-27-1994
  35. Washington Informer “Whitman-Walker Clinic Comes Under Sharp Scrutiny” by Alvin Peabody 03-30-1994
  36. The Washington Post “City Giving AIDS Clinic $1.2 Million; Whitman- Walker Chosen Over Minority Coalition” by Amy Goldstein 06-16-1994
  37. The Washington Post “AIDS Chief in DC Quits After 6 Months; Lack of Resources, Personal Needs Cited” by Amy Goldstein 06-23-1994
  38. Afro-American Red Star “Who Deserve Money to Fight AIDS?” by Gwen Gilmore 06-25-1994
  39. Washington Informer “City Awards AIDS Contract To Whitman Walker Clinic: Decision Called A ‘Death Sentence’ For City’s Poor” by Alvin Peabody 06-29-1994
  40. The Guardian “American Diary: Race, Religion, and AIDS” by Martin Walker 07-18-1994
  41. The Washington Post “Outsed DC AIDS Chief Settles Appeal With City; Ryan Was Accused of Meddling in Contract” by DaNeen L. Brown 07-19-1994
  42. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Trials Delayed Again” by Gwen Gilmore 08-06-1994
  43. Chalfont HealthQuest “Race, AIDS & Economics” by Shirley L Smith 10-31-1994
  44. Chicago Tribune “The Power and the Money” by William Gaines & David Jackson 03-12-1995
  45. Chicago Tribune “AIDS Hope or Hoax in a Bottle? Experienced Doctors say Nation of Islam’s Claim of Cure is Cruel Deception” by David Jackson & William Gaines 03-14-1995
  46. Afro-American Red Star “Dr Muhammad Gets Nod on NIH Interferon Trials: Abundant Life Clinic Under Fire” By Gwen Gilmore 03-2501995
  47. The Washington Post “US Begins Probe of District AIDS Clinic; Facility, Linked to Nation of Islam, Is Focus of Bias Complaints” by Amy Goldstein 03-28-1995
  48. The New Republic “The Homecoming” by Hanna Rosin 06-05-1995
  49. The Washington Post ” Advocate to Head DC AIDS Agency; New Chief Faces Expanding Diseases, Shrinking Resources” by Amy Goldstein 06-18-1995
  50. The Washington Post “My Record as an AIDS Activist” 07-03-1995
  51. Afro-American Red Star “Economic Trust Health Plan Finalized at Leadership Summit” by Frances Murphy 11-25-1995
  52. Afro-American Red Star “AIDS Trial to Begin in January” by Gwen Gilmore 12-30-1995
  53. New Journal and Guide “Kenyan Doctor’s Discovery in treating HIV/AIDS Will Be Tested in united States” by Leonard Colvin 01-17-1996
  54. Emerge “After the Million Man March” by George E. Curry 02-1996
  55. Afro-American Red Star “560 Sought For Kemron Trials: HIV Positive?” by Gwen Gilmore 04-27-1996
  56. Washington Informer “Inmates To Be Excluded” by Alvin Peabody 05-01-1996
  57. Washington Informer “NIH To Begin Kemron Drug Test” by Alvin Peabody 05-01-1996
  58. San Bernardino Precinct Reporter “HIV Study: Hundreds Sought for Kemron Trials” by Gwen Gilmore 05-09-1996
  59. New York Amsterdam News “AIDS and HIV Patients Sought For Kemron Drug Tests” by Gwen Gilmore 05-11-1996
  60. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Helped Lashaun Evans: AIDS” by Gwen Gilmore 05-11-1996
  61. Sacramento Observer “The Healthcare Disparity is Real: Distingushed Panel of African American Specialist Share Concerns at Summit: 05-22-1996
  62. Washington Informer “Unequal Facts Regarding African Americans and Health Care” 05-22-1996
  63. New York Voice “African American Healthcare Unequal” by Natalie Bullock 05-22-1996
  64. Afro-American Red Star “More Needed For Kemron Trial” by Gwen Gilmore 06-22-1996
  65. New York Amsterdam News “Experts Agree Black Life in America is Very Short” 08-31-1996
  66. Afro-American Red Star “IRS Stifles Abundant Life Clinic” by Desiree Allen Graves 09-07-1996
  67. The Washington Post “IRS Freezes Assets of AIDS Clinic Affiliated with Nation of Islam” by Amy Goldstein 09-13-1996
  68. Black Issues in Higher Education “Black Medical Community Boost AIDS Research: Howard, Meharry, King/Drew Recieve NIH Funding to Study Alpha Interferon” by Cheryl D. Fields 11-28-1996
  69. Afro-American Red Star “40 with HIV Needed for Kemron Trials” by Gwen Gilmore 05-10-1997
  70. New Journal and Guide “Landmark Work of African in Treating AIDS Disease Gets Skeptic Reception in America” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 05-28-1997
  71. Afro-American Red Star “Kemron Trials Ended” by Gwen Gilmore 06-28-1997
  72. Philadelphia Tribune “Trials Underway For Possible AIDS/HIV Cure” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 08-01-1997
  73. New York Beacon “Life Abundantly: Exchangein Needles” by Abdul Alim Muhammad 06-17-1998
  74. New Pittsburgh Courier “Minister Says He’s Cured of AIDS” by Treshea N. Wade 04-28-1999
  75. The Washington Post “The Goat Doctor; Gary Davi Thinks G-d Gave Him The Secret Formula to Cure This Little Girl of AIDS. Now the Government is Giving Him the Chance to Prove It” by Lisa Frazier 04-09-2000
  76. The State of Black America 2002 “African Americans Confront a Pandemic” by Maya Rockeymoore
  77. Afro-American Red Star “Southeast Clinic Provides Alternative Health Treatment” by Micheal Zimmerman 01-20-2007
  78. The Washington Informer “The Test of HIV Testing” by George E Curry 06-25-2009
  79. The Washington Post “HIV Funds Bypassing Area’s in Need: Services Scarce in DC” by Debbie Cenziper 12-13-2009

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

Sources

  1. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology  “Black Muslims And The Police” by L. Brown 1965 Spring
  2. Washington Post “Police to Cooperate with Muslims in Mayfair Mansions Drug Patrol” by S. Horowitz and M Abramowitz 04-21-1988
  3. New York Times “Muslims Keep Lid on Drugs in Capital” by W. Stevens 09-26-1988
  4. United Press International “Farrakhan Unveils Drug Program in DC” 12-13-1988
  5. Los Angeles Times “Black Muslims – HUD Security Pact in Doubt: Housing: Farrakhan Group Appeared on Verge of Landing Contract for Venice Apartment Buildings by S. Doherty 01-15-1992
  6. Chicago Tribune  “DC’s Balck Muslim Dopebusters” by C. Page 04-23-1989
  7. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Guards Patroling Crime – Plagued Projects: Housing Group Affiliated with Lousi Farrakhan Will Provide Unarmed Night Patrols for Federally Subsidized Apartment in Venice” by C. Rivera 11-2-1992
  8. Chicago Tribune “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government, Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  9. Wahsington (AP) “HUD To Investigate Nation of Islam Security Contracts” by R. Powers 01-20-1995
  10. Washington Post “Security Firm Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  11. Jewish Telegraphy Agency “HUD Decision To Cancel Contract with Nation of Islam Wins Praise” 11-12-1995
  12. Washington Post “A Breach In Guards Invincibility” by L. Adams 09-02-1996
  13. New York Times “Nation of Islam Guards Ordered to Leave Project” by R. Hernandez 09-13-1996
  14. Time “Muslims At The Mayfair” 06-24-2001
  15. Racializing Justice, Disenfranchising Lives: The Racism, Criminal Justice, and Law Reader” “Crime Prevention In The African American Community: Lessons Learned From The Nation of Islam” by S. Gabbidon 2007
  16. The Washington Times “To Curb Chicago Violence Bring In The Nation of Islam” by A. Williams 10-11-2015
  17. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Offers To Patrol Housing Crime” by S. Doherty 12-22-1992
  18. Las Vegas Review “Nation of Islam Bids to Patrol Project” 01-04-1992
  19. Orlando Sentinel “Tenants Consider Hiring Farrakhan Group To Patrol” 01-05-1992
  20. Newsday “Muslims Bid or HUD Deal Blasted Jews Oppose Try for Patrol Contract” 01-05-1992
  21. Philadelphia Inquirer “What Do Farrakhan and Followers Do” by C. Lewis 01-22-1992
  22. Los Angeles Times “Farrakhan’s Group In Line For Security Pact Patrol” by K. Ellingswood 07-02-1992
  23. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Security Patrol Hearing Set Sept 15 Permit? by K. Ellingswood 09-06-1992
  24. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Firm Ok’d For Public Housing Patrols” by K. Ellingswood 09-16-1992
  25. Los Angeles Times “Patrols By Nation of Islam Cut Violence Security” by K. Ellingswood 12-27-1992
  26. Los Angeles Times “Islam Security Firm Taken Off Patrols at Venice Housing Complex Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-13-1993
  27. Boston Globe “Nation of Islam Walks Fine Line with Blacks” by A. Perlman 02-20-1994
  28. Chicago Tribune “Islam Firm Gets CHA Pact” 03-31-1994
  29. Chicago Tribune “State Investigates CHA Guard Contract” 04-01-1994
  30. Chicago Tribune “Vigils Recognize South Side’s Violent Turn” by S. Rhodes 04-04-1994
  31. Chicago Tribune “A Holistic Solution For The CHA” by F. McRoberts 05-05-1994
  32. Chicago Tribune “Muslim Affiliated CHA Guards Accused of Impersonating Cops” 06-27-1994
  33. Chicago Tribune “Guarded Optimism At Rockwell Nation of Islam Force Walking A Fine Line At Troubled CHA Complex” by F. McRoberts 07-06-1994
  34. Chicago Tribune “Four Guards At ChA are Found Not Guilty” 01-04-1995
  35. Sun Sentinel “HUD Checking Discrimination Charges” 01-21-1995
  36. Pittsburgh Post “Hiring of Nation of Islam Patrols Studied by Sub-Committee” 01-27-1995
  37. Chicago Tribune “Law Makers in furor Over Black Muslims” 03-03-1995
  38. Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam Contracts Examined” 03-03-1995
  39. Washington Post “Security Firms Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  40. Chicago Tribune “The Business of Security Nation Linked Guards Earn Tenant Distrust” By W. Gaines 03-13-1995
  41. Chicago Tribune “HUD Tired of CHA Failures Lane’s Exit Brims with Irony” by. F. McRoberts 05-28-1995
  42. Chicago Tribune ” HUD Didn’t Probe Nation of Islam Pacts Security Deals Linked to Farrakhan Group” by D. Jackson 10-13-1995
  43. Chicago Tribune “Nation of Islam Losing CHA Contracts” by D. Jackson 02-17-1996
  44. Orlando Sentinel “Nation of Islam Linked Company out of Bidding” 02-18-1996
  45. Austin American Statesman ” Farrakhan’s Tour Sparks Criticism” 02-22-1996
  46. Chicago Tribune ” Security Supervisor Convicted of Murder” by T. Wilson 08-23-1998
  47. Chicago Tribune ” US Drops Bank Fraud Charge Against Ex- CHA Chief Lane” by M. O’Connor 03-06-2001
  48. Chicago Tribune ” Court is Told of Store Plan at Lane Mall But Nation of Islam Aide Concedes No Steps Taken to Launch Project” by M. O’Connor 03-15-2001
  49. New York Times “Questions Shadow New Jackson Advisor” by S. Wax man 01-03-2004
  50. The Baltimore Evening Sun “Muslims’ Security Patrols Urged for Public Housing High-Rises” by R. Hills on 09-28-1992
  51. The Baltimore Sun “Muslims Patrols Proposed For Public Housing” by R. Hilson 09-29-1992
  52. The Baltimore Sun “For The Young, ‘X’, symbolizes the Hip Hints at their Heritage” by R. Hilson 11-17-1992
  53. The Baltimore Sun “Clean Up Blitz at Flag House Courts” by M. Simmons & A. Fletcher 06-02=1993
  54. The Baltimore Sun “Cleanup, better security, Transform Flag House Courts” by M. Fletcher 06-07-1993
  55. The Baltimore Sun “Transformation at Flag High Rises” 06-09-1993
  56. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Courts Celebrates Rebirth’ by E. Heard 06-13-1993
  57. The Baltimore Sun “Housing Commissioner Operates by His Rules Blunt, Savvy Henson Rejuvenates agency” by M. Fletcher 10-03-1993
  58. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Court: Suddenly Cleaner, Safer, Nicer” by M. Fletcher 11-01-1993
  59. The Baltimore Sun “The Good Old Days at Flag House Courts Woman, Daughter Remember Fondly” by M. Fletcher 11-16-1993
  60. The Baltimore Sun “Community Respect Arms Nation of Islam” by M. Fletcher 12-12-1993
  61. The Baltimore Sun “For Mfume, A Quick Divorce From The Nation of Islam Would Not be Easy” by S. Baer 02-02-1994
  62. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch “Nation of Islam’s Security Efforts Win Friends with Downtrodden” by A. Perlman 02-24-1994
  63. The New York Times “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  64. Afro-American Red Star “Jewish Group Levels Attack on Muslims Security Contract” by J. Williams 03-12-1994
  65. Austin American Statesman “As Farrakhan Groups Win Contracts, Debate Grows’ by S. Holes 03-13-1994
  66. The Baltimore Sun “Nation of Islam Security Wins Contract for Public Housing, Despite high Bid” by E. Siegel 05-05-1994
  67. Philadelphia Tribune “Baltimore Cancels NOI Housing Security Contract” by T. Spangler 11-14-1995
  68. The Baltimore Sun “Tenant Leaders Say Security Declines In Projects” by j. Jacobson 02-07-1996
  69. The Baltimore Sun “Security Issues Raised in Wake of Boy’s Slaying” by P. Herman & R. Irwin 02-28-1996
  70. The Baltimore Sun “City Fires High Rise Security” by R. Matthews 02-08-1997
  71. The Afro-American Red Star ‘Housing Authority Tells Wells Fargo to Step’ by T. White 02-15-1997
  72. The Baltimore Sun ‘business with Ties to Welch gets Contract; housing security operator includes NOI Aides” by W. Roberts 04-05-1997
  73. The Baltimore Sun “Schmoke Leaving Mixed Legacy” by G. Shields 12-05-1999
  74. The Baltimore Sun “end of a Pubic Housing Era High Rises” by E. Siegel 02-08-2001
  75. The Philadelphia Tribune “Jews divided on Muslim PHA Deal” by B. Wright 08-21-1992
  76. The Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam guards Bring Some Peace, Some Controversy” by T. Samuel 08-14-1992
  77. Philadelphia Daily News “Project Residents Files Suit” by S. Flanders 04-08-1993
  78. Philadelphia Inquirer “Three Sue Abbottsford Managers, Guards, Alleging Beatings” by T. Samuel 04-16-1993
  79. Philadelphia Tribune “Spread Report: Islam and Black Community” by B. Wright 06-18-1993
  80. New York Times “Muslim Guards: Security Unit Maintaining Pride” by M. Tabor 01-06-1992
  81. New York Times “An Inquiry Spreads Blame For Deaths at a New York Gym” by J. Berger 01-16-1992
  82. New York Times “Neighborhood Report: Coney Island; Islamic Guard Unit Outsed” by J. Steinhauer 11-13-1994
  83. Newsday “Assemblymen Gets some Help Brooklyn Democrat is Joined by GOP in Taking on Muslim Security Group” by B. Russel and M. Parente 02-08-1995
  84. Newsday “Brooklyn in Albany Shaking Up the Capitol” 03-28-1995
  85. New York Times “Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  86. New York Times “Slur by a Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  87. New York Amsterdam News “Tenants in Uproar as partaking Axes X-Men” by A. Sinclair 09-28-1996
  88. New York Amsterdam News “Van Blasts Pataki for Cancelling X-Men’s Pact” by J. Z. Browne 10-19-1996
  89. New York Times “X-Me’s Foe; Spotlight on a Corner” by A. Jacobs 10-20-1999
  90. The Villiage Voice “Truth Justice and the X-Men” by V. Srivastava 10-29-1997
  91. New York Times “dispute Over Guards With Farrakhan Link Moves toCourt” 05-25-1997
  92. Newsday “$200 M Suit Against Rep King Dismisssed” by Y. Ellen 11-07-1999
  93. New York Daily News “Farrakhan Linked Lawsuit Out” by r. Gerry 11-08-1999
  94. Los Angeles Times “Security Firm Taken Off Venice Patrols Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-14-1993
  95. The Washington Post  ” Nation of Islam Agency Says Jews Forced HUD’s Action” by L. Adams 11-11-1995
  96. Austin American Statesman “Nation of Islam Security Unit Threatens to SUe HUD” 11-11-1995
  97. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Agency Fights US Decision Court Asked to Rule in MD Housing Cast” 11-16-1995
  98.  Baltimore Jewish Times “Facing Eviction: Nation of Islam Security Agency Blames Jewish Influence for its Ousting From Baltimore’s Public Housing Projects” D. Conn 11-17-1995
  99. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Files Multi-million Dollat SUit Against HUD” A. McCarthy 11-18-1995
  100. Afro-American Red Star “Tenants are Losers” 11-18-1995
  101. The Washington Post ” Ruling Against Nation of Islam” 12-07-1995
  102. Baltimore Jewish Times ” NOI Security Lawsuit Dismissed For Lack of Case” D. Conn 05-24-1996
  103. The Washington Post “Muslim Dopebusters To Widen Patrol; At Rally Leaders Announce They’ll Enter Paradise Manor” J. Rupert 04-30-1988
  104. The Washington Post “The Uneasy Peace At Clifton Terrace; Muslim Guard in NW Draws Mixed Review” G. Escobar 05-28-1992
  105. The Washington Post “Urban Problems, Pastoral Settings” K. Harrison 08-20-1992
  106. The Washington Post “Yo! A Rapper’s Domestic Poliscy Plan; How Clinton Can Bring Hope to Alienated Black America” by Paris (Rapper) 01-03-1993
  107. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Firm Fights King, ADL” 03-11-1995
  108. The Washington Post “DC Hires Nation of Islam Guards for SE Complex; Public Housing Chief Cites Patrols’ Success at Other Developments in Nation” V. Loeb 05-04-1995
  109. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Guard Stabbed at SE Complex” by R. Cateneda and W. Melillo 05-12-1995
  110. New Orleans Times-Picayune “DC Residents Firght Development Guards” 05-12-1995
  111. The Washington Post “Potomac Gardens Quiet After Fights; Residents Ask City Officials to Keep Nation of Islam Guards on Duty” H. Harris 05-13-1995
  112. The Washington Post “DC Rehires Nation of Islam to Patrol Potomac Gardens” by V. Loeb 05-17-1995
  113. Afro-American Red Star “Nation of Islam Gets Temporary Contract” J.F. Brown 05-20-1995
  114. Afro-American Red Star “Potomac Gardens Contract Up For Bid” J.F. Brown 05-27-1995
  115. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Security Firm Seeks Backruptcy Protection” by V. Loeb 06-03-1995
  116. The Washington Post “Off-Duty Police Could Patrol Potomac Gardens” By B. Loeb 06-10-1995
  117. The Washington Post “Police Start Round the Clock Patrols at Potomac Gardens” by. R.H. Hamil 06-17-1995
  118. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Security Insecure in USA” G. Gilmore 07-08-1995
  119. The Washington Post “Ex-Guard Convicted in Assault Case” 07-15-1995
  120. New Pittsburgh Courier “HUD Orders NOI Contract Termination” by T. Spangler 12-02-1995
  121. DOPEBUSTER by Richard Muhammad Copyright 2019 printed by 48HrBooks

Dopebusters Drug Patrols

In the Spring of 1965, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology published a work on the threat of the Nation of Islam (NOI) to the police. A summary of the NOI of Islam beliefs was given. The religion centers on the idea that the ruling white man is destined for a fall. The members do see whites as the devil, but G-d has predetermined the end of the white man’s rule. Blacks are to separate and become an independent state before the fall to avoid catastrophe. So the movement has no reason to attack the police directly. The NOI was deemed not to be a direct threat to the police as a whole. The security/militia force Fruit of Islam (FOI) my resist police in small incidence, but there was no rebellion planned.

The reputation of the Fruit of Islam grows from the 1960s to the 1980s and residents at the Mayfair Mansions take notice. Violence and the drug trade had enveloped the community that was now nicknamed “Little Beiruit.” The Nation of Islam begins selling their paper in the complex and residents notice the drug dealers leave while the NOI was present. A group of concerned citizens asked the Nation of Islam to patrol the area to stop drug dealers. Abdul Alim Muhammad, leader of DC’s Mosque #4, agreed and the “Dopebusters” were born in 1988.

Police Chief, Maurice Turner, reluctantly agrees to work with the NOI Drug Patrols. The story of the Dopebusters drew national attention and continued violence at the Mayfair would draw negative attention to the city. Council members and many constituents in the Mayfair publically supported the effort. Turner decided that the NOI would only patrol and call authorities when they saw something. The guards were not to use any violence.

The problem in District 6, which included the Mayfair, was a small police presence. They had 235 officers patrolling the district, which led to the smallest ratio of officers to residents. [2] Because of increased attention from media, the chief agreed to concentrate his force at the Mayfair.[3] So those that used to deal at the Mayfair moved to neighboring housing projects.[3] The citizens at the Mayfair were grateful to have peace in their neighborhood, and they praised the guards for granting them peace. The NOI was allowed to fly their flag over the projects, as the Islamic Caliphs did in the old days. [3]

On April 19, 1988, a man with a shotgun confronted an NOI guard. The guard disarms the man by kicking the gun out of his hand. Ten men proceed to beat the man unconscious. An NBC news team catches the melee on film. The guards see that they are being recorded and began to attack the cameraman to ensure the footage is not aired on television. One of the guards was arrested along with the man that welded the shotgun. The story made headlines and Mosque #4 had to issue an apology. Residents of the Mayfair picketed in support of the guards. [17]

Dr. Alim Muhammad gave a press conference on April 30, 1988. Accompanying him were hundreds of supporters of the Nation of Islam patrols. In the speech, Alim Muhammad chastised the media in elevating the one instance of overreach, and not the fact they ended open-air drug sales in less than a month. He invites Christians, Jews, and fellow Muslims to join in the Patrols because they would soon expand to Paradise Manor. The most inflammatory aspect of the speech was the accusation that many police were involved in drug sales. This accusation that could not be proven hurt the ability of the security forces to work with the police.

The beating of a news crew was not the only instance of overreach. An apartment building manager accused the guards of attempting to extort $5,000 from her company.[6] However, the NOI guards would find other ways to finance their patrol in the way of government contracts.

The success from Mayfair made FOI guards a hot commodity in many low-income housing areas. The NOI Security Agency – Washington was incorporated in 1990 to win government contracts in security. In the same manner, other NOI security agencies emerged in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Chicago. The DC agency expanded its patrol to Clifton Terrace and Potomac Gardens.

The Clifton Terrace Patrols began in May of 1992. Most of the residents supported the new patrols. However, there was also vocal opposition. A group of men threatened the guards with violence on May 5. In response, a guard allegedly attacked resident James Earl Keech. Later that day, the unarmed guards encountered gunfire. Police were slow to arrive but arrested Taino M. Granum who had a stolen gun on his person. The event shows how cooperation between police and the guards began to break down. Both sides gave different accounts to the police. The public housing authority ended the security contract a short time later.

The American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) both took issue with an anti-semitic group getting government contracts. The ADL published a report in 1995 detailing contract discrepancies in the NOI security contracts. The ADL claimed that the NOI security agencies were directly connected to the NOI. Most of the evidence in the report came from the NOI newsletter, <u>The Final Call</u>. In the paper, the NOI praises the work of the security agencies as a victory for the Nation of Islam as a whole.

The report sparked outrage from the public. Bob Dole and Peter King, both Republicans, launch a senate investigation. If the security firm violated procurement law, Housing and Urban Development (HUD) would have to terminate the contracts. Peter King wanted the NOI listed as a hate group even though the American Civil Liberties Union did not list them as such.

HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros defended the decision to award NOI security firms contracts. Many members of The Congressional Black Caucus also supported the NOI effort. The firms were not legally linked to the Nation of Islam religious organization, and to Cisneros’ knowledge, the guards did not proselytize on duty. Therefore to deny them contracts would be religious discrimination. It is important to remember the Republicans had recently won both houses.

The six-week investigation concluded in March of 1995. There was no evidence of large-scale proselytizing while guards were on duty and the investigation confirmed the security firms were not linked to the Nation of Islam. There was also no evidence that the firms discriminated against non-Muslims or women. Most of the interviews with residents of the areas the security firms patrolled said the guards are more courteous than other private guards. Residents, white and black, both agreed their neighborhoods were markedly safer.

After the investigation Nation of Islam security wins a contract to patrol Potomac Gardens. The original contract was awarded under emergency conditions for two weeks at $30,000. Again most residences wanted the guards, but there was also strong opposition. One woman interviewed by the Washington Post said that she shielded a man from an NOI beating. The guards yelled “Black Power, Black Power” after the incident. [109]

On May 12, 1995 NOI guard James Baldwin was allegedly stabbed in the chest by resident Paul Sparks. The event was the third violent event during the two weeks Potomac Gardens had a patrol. Earlier an NOI guard was struck with a bottle. The guards retaliate by assaulting a resident suspected of throwing the bottle. The incidents sparked City Council to visit the project.

During the visit Councilman Frank Smith had this to say:

“There’s no question about the fact that the people who live over there see this as a form of relief from the drug sales…The sale of drugs around public housing complexes is ultimately a police problem, and it will not be solved in a lasting way at Potomac Gardens or anywhere else until a new police division responsible for public housing is created”.[112]

After the City Council visited they decide to extend the emergency contract another two weeks. The guards did stop open-air drug sales, even with a few instances of over-reach. By June 6, the emergency contract would end and the NOI would need to win the contact under normal bidding circumstances. Unfortunately, the Nation of Islam Security Agency flies for bankruptcy protection in June of 1995. The firm claims $620,000 in assets and $760,000 in liabilities. Of the liabilities, $53,000 was back taxes to Washington, DC. The DC Housing Authority had to take into account NOI Security’s financial state during the contract bid, and they lost their bid.

The Potomac Garden patrol was taken up by off-duty police officers. The officers were paid overtime with the same Federal funds that would have been used for the private guards. Ultimately, the responsibility for reducing crime fell back on the police. With increased police presence, the crime problem in Washington, DC subsided.

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Sources

Print Sources

  1. Washington Informer “Fish Program Launched” by Akmal 05-09-1984
  2. Washington Post “Muslim Leader Says DC Police ‘Involved’ in Drug Activity” by S. Horwitz and P. Gaines-Carter 04-28-1988
  3. Wall Street Journal “Frontier Justice” 06-16-1988
  4. The Christian Science Monitor “On the Street to Fight Drugs, These People Wear No Badge” by L. Overbea 07-05-1988
  5. The Washington Post “Complaints of DC Police Misconduct” 09-02-1988
  6. The Washington Post “Farrakhan Visits Mayfair, Pushes Muslim Drug Plan; City Encouraged to Consider His Method” by C. Sanchez 12-14-1988
  7. The Washington Post “Sadly, Reports on Mr. Farrakhan Are Accurate” 11-26-1989
  8. The Washington Post “Farrakhan’s Uphill Candidate; Nation of Islam Spokesman Abdul Alim Muhammad’s Long Road to Traditional Politics” by M.W. Thompson 08-02-1990
  9. The Washington Post “First Black Challenger Puts the Heat on Hoyer” by K. Jenkins Jr 09-01-1990
  10. The Washington Post “Bringing Race and Politics to the Surface in Pr. George’s Series: Campaign ’90; Campaign in Maryland” by M.L. Norris 09-04-1990
  11. The Washington Post “Glendening, Hoyer Sail to Victory” by M.L. Norris 09-12-1990
  12. The Washington Post “P.G. Blacks Rejected Racial Campaigns; Independents’s Hopes for Voter Revolt Failed” by M.L. Norris & E.L. Meyer 09-13-1990
  13. The Washington Post “Resolution for Muslim Leader Scuttled” by R. Sanchez 07-08-1992
  14. The Washington Post ” Thomas Drops Another Nation of Islam Bombshell” by R. Sanchez 07-16-1992
  15. The Washington Post “Kelly Honors Nation of Islam Activist Proclamation Riles Jewish Leaders” by R. Sanchez 07-18-1992
  16. The Washington Post “Mayor Kelly’s Proclamation” 07-22-1992
  17. Washington Informer “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad: Deserving, Devoted, Caring” by L. Wiggins 07-22-1992
  18. The Washington Post “Muhammad’s Actions Speak Louder” 08-01-1992
  19. The Washington Post “Blind Eye to Prejudice” 08-02-1992
  20. Afro-American Red Star “The Cheated Me At 15; I Am Still Fighting Today: Muhammad Says” by. A.A. Muhammad 09-18-1993
  21. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Official Assails Jewish Group; ADL Accused of Conspiring Against Blacks” 09-08-1994
  22. Afro-American Red Star “Farrakhan Calls for 1 Million Men to March on Washington” by G. Gilmore 10-22-1994
  23. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph “Black Leader Focus on Health Care / March Speaker Urges Managed-Care Program” 04-29-1996
  24. Afro-American Red Star “October 16 is World’s Day of Atonement” by G. Gilmore 10-12-1996
  25. Philadelphia Tribune “NOI Official: Hospital Will Soon Release Farrakhan” by M.J. rochon 04-06-1999
  26. Afro-American Red Star “Howard University Shines” 04-10-1999
  27. The Final Call “Nation of Islam’s Zimbabwe AIDS Project Seeks Donations for Treatment Program” 12-04-2002
  28. The Final Call “Interview with Nation of Islam Minister of Health, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad” 12-10-2006
  29. The Final Call “Police Checkpoints Return to DC Neighborhood” 08-12-2008
  30. McClatchy – Tribune Business News “Man Sacrifices His Privacy to Help Others” by H. Jackson Jr 08-20-2009
  31. The Final Call “How to Eat to Live: Focus on Food and Well Being” 03-16-2011
  32. The Final Call “Taking it to the Street: FOI Promote Peace Nationwide” 07-25-2012
  33. The Final Call “A Torchlight for American: The Nation of Islam Offers Solutions to Fight Crime” 08-10-2012
  34. The Final Call “The Time and WHat Must Be Done” 06-11-2013
  35. The Final Call “Lies, Spies and Jewish Assault on Truth” by R. Muhammad 06-13-2013
  36. The Final Call “Travyon Martin & The Call to True Black Unity” 08-05-2013
  37. The Final Call “Building Up Young Black Men” 03-12-2019
  38. Dominiquediprima.com “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad”
  39. New Journal and Guide “Needle Exchange Ineffective Weapon Against AIDS” by A.A. Muhammad 06-24-1998
  40. yale Journal of Law and Liberation “Black Nation Under Siege” by A.A. Muhammad Issue1 Article 11
  41. Philadelphia Tribune “If Clinton is Truly Sorry, He Should Take Next Steps” by A.A. Muhammad 07-01-1997
  42. New Pittsburgh Courier “Apology Not Atonement” by A.A. Muhammad 07-19-1997
  43. New Pittsburgh Courier “Tuskegee Study: Apology Is Not Atonement” by A.A. Muhammad 07-26-1997
  44. Philadelphia Tribune “Human Rights Entitle Blacks to Healthcare” by A.A. Muhammad 08-19-1997
  45. Philadelphia Tribune “Notion of Civilized Humanity is Hanging in Balance” by A.A. Muhammad 01-20-1998
  46. Philadelphia Tribune “Civilized Humanity is Hanging in the Balance” by A.A. Muhammad 014-27-1998
  47. The Chicago Tribune “Black America: ” The Fattest Nation on Earth” by A.A. Muhammad 06-11-1998
  48. Los Angeles Sentinel “Fake Food Flood Continues” by A.A. Muhammad 06-11-1998

Video Sources

The Youtube Playlist can be found HERE

  1. “My Journey to Allah” on IRONMUHAMMAD68 published 03-01-2016
  2. “Original Food & Human Potential: Dr. Alim Muhammad at TEDxHarlem” on TEDx Talks published 07-30-2012
  3. “The Health & Well Being of Humanity: How to Eat to LIVE – Dr. Alim Muhammad” on Knowledge for Life published on 04-26-2011
  4. “Dr. Alim Muhammad: “The Negro” 04/16/06 Long Beach Ca” on Truth/Controversy published on 07-23-2019
  5. “Dr. Abdul ALim Muhammad – Raw Milk Interview” on beesford published 10-25-2011
  6. “The S.T.E.M. Files: “The Abundant Life Journey”, with Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad 10/25/18″ on OMSTV published 10-25-2018
  7. “How To Eat To Live Vs The Devil’s Kitchen – Dr. Alim Muhammad Speaks” on Saviours Helper published 05-01-2018
  8. “Raw Milk & Alpha Interferon Treatments for Aids & Many Other Diseases – Dr. Alim Muhammad Speaks” on Saviours Helper published 04-25-2019
  9. “FFA #4 Nation of Islam w/ Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad” on DCArts90s published on 03-11-2019
  10. “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad on The Crossfire Program” on IRONMUHAMMAD68 published 04-18-2015
  11. “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Performs A Unique Body Healing Treatment” on ItsNationTime published 12-10-2009
  12. “Dr. Alim Muhammad MD talks about Nutrition Response Testing (R)” on Ulan Nutritional Systems published 02-22-2012
  13. “Dr. Abdul Alim Mohammad” on bahram heidari published 09-12-2014
  14. “Dr. Alim’s Abundant Life Show: Episode 1 -7” on Dr. Alim’s Abundant Life Show published in 2017
  15. “Alim Muhammad demands all go clear” on The Jandar111 published 10-23-2012
  16. “Scientology Makes whites not devils anymore?” on justiceimhotep published 01-04-2012
  17. “Cokley Vs Rubin” on TheOldFilmArchive on 02-14-2012
  18. “The Successful Practice of How To Eat To Live in 2012 – Dr. Alim” on N.O.I. Buffalo published 07-07-2013
  19. “Haarp Earth Quaked Haiti, Dr. Alim Muhammad – Haiti Now Conference Saviors Day 2010 – Part 1 -10” on Saviours Helper published 03-06-2010
  20. “Swine Flu, Vaccinations and Solutions Part 1 – 11” on Elias Muhammad Published 2009
  21. “Swine Flu, Vaccination and Prevention Guidance Part 1 – 8” on Elias Muhammad published 09-17-2009

Video Sources from Final Call

  1. The Earthquake in Haiti: An Eyewitness Report
  2. My Journey to Allah

G-d’s Role for Black People in America

Michaux’s race philosophy can be summed up in the National Memorial to the Progress of the Colored Race in America. The monument established in 1936 served to commemorate the civilization of black people through slavery. The memorial and the resulting organization was centered around a few principles:

Historical – Chronicle notable events in the black race
Memorial- Recognition of exceptional black people
Humanitarian- cooperation to the material advancement of black people
Cultural- progress of blacks in art, music, and wholesome entertainment
Patriotic – not political, but a belief in the founding documents and love for America’s founding
Spiritual- not sectarian, but a general love of G-d and the divine

The memorial was built in Williamsburg to commemorate the first recorded landing of slaves in 1607 and the last slave ship to arrive in 1861. Michaux saw slavery as a positive good. Slavery civilized an otherwise barbarous group of people. Michaux had a ceremony to commemorate the arrival of the last slave ship in 1961.

In the document that explains the purpose of the monument, he defends Robert E Lee falsely stating he freed his slaves before assuming command of the Confederate army.

The memorial was on a 400-acre tract of land with eighty farms. The farms were cooperative, and the profits were split evenly among all the participants. Michaux supplied the farms with equipment and livestock. Plus there was a small farm college started in the area so people could learn the best methods for farming. The farm was established in 1936 and expanded in 1943. Michaux wanted the farm to feed the church in the event of another depression.

Michaux did see the role of the church in America as the watchdog of the government. Only when the church takes its rightful position in America will, including racial segregation end. The clergy was to praise and critique the government, not the congregation.

From the pulpit, Michaux cast Hoover as a modern day Saul. Hoover abandoned G-d’s plan when he attacked the bonus army, a group of WW1 veterans that were protesting for assistance. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a modern day, David ushering G-d’s plan, which was The New Deal. Those that oppose The New Deal oppose the divine plan. Michaux campaigned with FDR at a mass rally in Madison Square Garden in 1932.

G-d will bring social change through individual hearts. Not by civil disobedience or directly lobbying the government. That is the core disagreement between Solomon Michaux and Dr. King. Many KKK members supported Michaux because his philosophy did not require them to relinquish anything. Whites were able to determine how much freedom black people get. Black liberation is on the timetable of whites under Michaux’s philosophy.

Anti-Black Actions of Solomon Michaux

Michaux’s criticisms of Father Divine were well publicized. Many of these critiques, such as allowing members to refer to him as G-d and disallowing followers to have sex, are rooted in a deviation of orthodox Christianity. However, when agitated, Michaux would refer to Divine as “that little Negro,” “little black devil,” and “hellish black rascal.” Coming from a light skinned black man of mixed race, these comments could be seen as colorist. Here is a quote listed in the Baltimore Afro-American from Michaux on Father Divine in 1934:

“White people don’t love colored people; Jews don’t like Italians, and you blame it on the depression.

Many a white mouth has sucked a black breast – But because it gave forth white milk, they loved it. Colored people loved marse and massa.

It’s different now. Whites hate colored because they think colored shouldn’t be their equals. Colored hate whites because of slavery. Slavery was God’s plan to civilize us.

We could’ve been in Africa throwing cocoanuts at one another if we hadn’t been brought over here and made slaves. All races have had to be slaves at one time or another.

There is no depression in heaven. Fish still swim, flowers still bloom, and the sun needs no National Recovery Act to make it shine or stop shining. It’s you: all the trouble is with you and in you. You don’t love.

Go home tonight and kiss your husband. Wake him up if you have to. It may scare him to death, but do it anyway as your first act to prove you love everybody.”

In 1965, Solomon Michaux bought a 636 Acre Plot near Jamestown for $180,000. He decided to turn this land into a housing development for whites. It was to be named the ” Francis Lightfoot Lee Colony.” Many in the black press believed this was a nod to Confederate General Robert E Lee who descended from Francis Lightfoot Lee. One of the streets was to be named after Senator / Governor Harry Byrd, an arch-segregationist. Even though the plan was to sell the homes to whites, naming streets after slave owners and segregationists was another action that one could view as anti-black.

Solomon Michaux was known for opposing Dr. King in three ways. The first was demanding Dr. King apologize to J. Edgar Hoover for saying the FBI was a tool of white supremacy. The second was defaming King by insinuating he was a communist and that he had affairs. The third was picketing an SCLC event in Baltimore in which King called for a boycott of Alabama, in 1965. His opposition inspired several opinion articles in the Baltimore Afro-American. All the writers felt that Michaux never gave a rational explanation for his opposition to King. We now know that Michaux was working for the FBI.

The Gospel Spreading Church website claims that Michaux referred to King as a “saint” in the church paper Happy News. The use of the word “saint” was satirical, according to Lerone Martin’s article in Religion and American Culture. Michaux would use the term to mock King while spreading lies about him being a communist and having affairs.

The Gospel Spreading Church alleged that Michaux had a protest for Civil Rights in 1961. There was one article in the Baltimore Afro-American that referenced the protest, dated December 9, 1961. The protest was not about Civil Rights, but Protestant / Catholic unity. Michaux sent a burlap sack and hood to John F Kennedy hoping he would wear it during his Thanksgiving meal. The actual protest had 500 participates from the various branches of the Gospel Spreading Church. Churchgoers demonstrated at the Shrine of the Immaculate Conception and two Baptist Churches. The article never mentioned Civil Rights.

Michaux: The Father of Churches

In Newport News, VA, a baby was born on November 7, 1884. The father was of mixed Black and Jewish Ancestry. He wants the baby to be named Solomon. The mother of Black and Native American parentage, wants the baby to be named Lightfoot. They decided on the name Lightfoot Solomon Michaux. The baby was born with a caul, a membrane resembling a veil covering his face. A caul signifies the baby will grow up to be a man of prominence.

John, the father, was a fantastic patriarch for the 1880s. He descended from a Jewish man that immigrated to Richmond before the Civil War. Due to his father coming from a line of merchants John opened a store. Solomon Michaux helped his father run the store and opened his store later in life. However, Michaux had a creative side his father did not have. He decides to open a dancing school as his second venture.

It is through his dancing school that he met his lovely wife. Mary Eliza Pauline was a student at said school and found Solomon to be quite handsome and charismatic. Their relationship began when he saw Mary crying outside the house of her then lover. Solomon felt sorry for her and made a deal. If she agreed to be in a monogamous relationship with him, they could live together. The couple will never have biological children but will adopt a daughter in the 1950s named Ieeda (Aeeda) Martin. The girl was an Eskimo from Alaska.

Mary’s origins were always questionable. She was orphaned at an early age and lived in a room above Gresham’s Bar in the Red Light District. According to the history of the Church of God, she served as a missionary attempting to save the souls of those in the Red Light District. Most people in town believed her to be a prostitute. One of the people believed the rumor was Solomon’s father, John and this rumor led to animosity between Mary and the rest of the Michaux’s. Mary was also seven to fifteen years older, her husband. Despite her flaws, she was extremely religious and encouraged her husband to join St. Timothy Church of Christ (Holiness).

Solomon and John landed a contract to supply the local harbor with vegetables. Part of the reason he won the deal was he obtained green peas out of seasons. Little did the government know he was taking dry peas, soaking them in water and green food coloring. Ultimately, the venture was profitable, and he was able to build a business network.

Mary sees the town of Hopewell as a lost city. As the old testament towns of old, licentiousness has overcome the city. The new army base and factory caused a population explosion. More people were at the gambling hall than the church. Mary wants Solomon to build a new church to save the people of Hopewell.

John likes the idea of Solomon preaching and offered to pay for Baptist seminary. When Mary hears this, she hits the roof. Mary wanted Solomon’s church to be pure, and Baptist preachers were far from pure. Many of them propositioned her even though she was married. Solomon decided to side with his wife in the argument and started the church from a tent. He would find others to preach.

Solomon starts a church in 1917 with a land grant from the DuPont corporation. He built a white frame structure and found visiting elders to preach. The church was called Everybody’s Mission. One of the guest preachers was a man named Brother Diaz. During the Diaz service, a vision comes to the pastor. Diaz tells the congregation that Solomon Michaux was destined to lead them.

Solomon began what would later be known as the Gospel Spreading Church in 1919 from a tent in Newport News. He was able to get over 150 members in three months. By November, he was able to buy the current building on 19th and Jefferson. He would obtain the Lincoln Theater in this town in 1929. The congregation wouldn’t stop growing and a second church began in Hampton, Spring of 1922.

The church had a very charismatic style known for vibrant songs and captivating preaching. The members were also not shy about proclaiming to the world their love for Jesus. In October 1922, Michaux was arrested for leading a parade in the early morning that awoke the residents of Newport News. He was convicted and ordered to pay a fine or go to jail. Michaux chose jail. The judge realizing Michaux would be considered a martyr ordered his car to the confiscated to pay the $25 fine. The judge offered to give Michaux the excess from the sale of the vehicle. Michaux refused.

After World War 1, coastal Virginia experiences an economic downturn. Michaux responds by creating the “Common Plan.” Members that had work would pay into a fund; in return, unemployed members would do basic chores and menial tasks for the paying members. The Common Plan helped some members stay in Virginia until the economy turned around. Others left to find work in different states.

The first group left in 1924 left for the coal mines in Edenborn, Pennsylvania close to Pittsburgh. A church was established in this area in 1930. The group in Pennsylvania expanded and a Gospel Spreading Church was also founded in Philadelphia in 1935.

The second group left to find work in Baltimore with a church established in 1923. Another church was created in the Baltimore suburb of Essex, MD in 1924. The Essex church attracted a white family later found to be part of the Ku Klux Klan. They were attracted to the charismatic and patriotic preaching style of Solomon Michaux. The white family was so impressed with the sermon they ask Solomon Michaux to give a lecture at their home church.

Going to a white church with a heavy KKK presence did give Michaux pause, but he saw it as part of his mission. He agrees to speak at the white church because he feels G-d will protect him from any harm. The church enjoys his sermon and from then on whites regularly attend Michaux’s Essex Church.

In 1926, Virginia passed the segregation laws, commonly known as Jim Crow. He invited his mixed congregation to worship in Virginia. The multi-racial church service violated state law, and Michaux was arrested. He had to pay a fine as punishment, but he continues to speak out against segregated churches. The Church of God had integrated services in any state that would allow them. He held firm to the belief that G-d’s law supersedes any state or national law. In G-d’s house, there was no segregation.

Washington, DC of 1928 was a prime location for a new church, so one was founded on Georgia Ave. A large black migrant population that was extremely poor entered DC. The affluent black community already in the district ostracized the newcomers. Michaux understands many of the new arrivals might not attend church because they feel they can’t dress well enough. To service these people, he decides on creating a radio ministry.

WJSV was one of the local radio stations. It was owned by James Vance who was part of the KKK and published their newspaper. Vance agrees to broadcast from a storefront location in DC, and so began the Radio Church of God in 1929.

The broadcast centered around music, even the sermons had a beat to them. The song the show is most famous for is “Happy Am I.” That is why Michaux is known as the “Happy am I, Preacher.”

Once Michaux became a household name, he hired tutors to teach him theology and other biblical concepts. He had limited literacy, so often the tutors would read to him. Using his newfound knowledge, he was able to build a biblical philosophy that mixed “New Thought” and the “Social Gospel” while being patriotic. The sermons were still simple enough for the average person to understand. Even when political topics were discussed, they were done simplistically.

The Radio Church of God was a top-rated show in the Mid-Atlantic region. When CBS bought WJSV in 1932, the Radio Church of God was the only show CBS kept from the original station. The show was broadcast of 52 CBS stations and in some international affiliates and had a viewership of 25 million people by mid-1930s.

Michaux not only established himself as a prophet but felt the need to expose false prophets. Father Divine was one of these false profits preaching a non-biblical gospel. Divine told his congregants that sex was wrong even within the confines of marriage. He also allowed his followers to refer to him as G-d on earth. Michaux had many revivals in New York at Father Divine’s house and headquarters Rockland Palace October 1934. Denouncing Divine was the focus of the Madison Square Garden Revival on October 7, 1934. Two of Divine’s so-called “Angels” testified against him. The Angels accused Divine of taking all the wages of congregants. A Gospel Spreading Church established a church in New York in 1934. The church’s goal was to stop the spread of Divine’s message.

The fame from radio opened more avenues for Michaux, leading to many multi-racial revivals in Washington, DC, and Pennsylvania. The annual baptism at Griffith Stadium etched Michaux in the minds and hearts of America. A documentary film was created on his life in 1942 “We’ve Come a Long, Long Way.”

Now the notoriety did not come without backlash. Michaux was known for attacking more traditional denominations. The Interdenominational Ministries Union started accusing Michaux’s church with being a cult. Michaux began to raise money to build a monument and farmers co-op in Williamsburg, VA. Many people accused him of misappropriating funds. Even though the charges were never proved in court, they did diminish his credibility. In 1938, CBS canceled the show, but Michaux broadcast independently from Washington, DC until he dies. Making The Radio Church of God the longest running radio show in history.

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