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Black Leadership Analysis

This is an unofficial Spiral Dynamics blog. It is not endorsed by D. Beck PhD.

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blackleaderanalysis

This site will use Ego Development Theory to analysis various leaders and problems in the black community. Ego Development Theory is a value meme classification first invented by Clare W. Graves and expanded by Natasha Todorovic, Christopher Cowan, and Don Edward Beck.

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

Sources

  1. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology  “Black Muslims And The Police” by L. Brown 1965 Spring
  2. Washington Post “Police to Cooperate with Muslims in Mayfair Mansions Drug Patrol” by S. Horowitz and M Abramowitz 04-21-1988
  3. New York Times “Muslims Keep Lid on Drugs in Capital” by W. Stevens 09-26-1988
  4. United Press International “Farrakhan Unveils Drug Program in DC” 12-13-1988
  5. Los Angeles Times “Black Muslims – HUD Security Pact in Doubt: Housing: Farrakhan Group Appeared on Verge of Landing Contract for Venice Apartment Buildings by S. Doherty 01-15-1992
  6. Chicago Tribune  “DC’s Balck Muslim Dopebusters” by C. Page 04-23-1989
  7. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Guards Patroling Crime – Plagued Projects: Housing Group Affiliated with Lousi Farrakhan Will Provide Unarmed Night Patrols for Federally Subsidized Apartment in Venice” by C. Rivera 11-2-1992
  8. Chicago Tribune “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government, Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  9. Wahsington (AP) “HUD To Investigate Nation of Islam Security Contracts” by R. Powers 01-20-1995
  10. Washington Post “Security Firm Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  11. Jewish Telegraphy Agency “HUD Decision To Cancel Contract with Nation of Islam Wins Praise” 11-12-1995
  12. Washington Post “A Breach In Guards Invincibility” by L. Adams 09-02-1996
  13. New York Times “Nation of Islam Guards Ordered to Leave Project” by R. Hernandez 09-13-1996
  14. Time “Muslims At The Mayfair” 06-24-2001
  15. Racializing Justice, Disenfranchising Lives: The Racism, Criminal Justice, and Law Reader” “Crime Prevention In The African American Community: Lessons Learned From The Nation of Islam” by S. Gabbidon 2007
  16. The Washington Times “To Curb Chicago Violence Bring In The Nation of Islam” by A. Williams 10-11-2015
  17. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Offers To Patrol Housing Crime” by S. Doherty 12-22-1992
  18. Las Vegas Review “Nation of Islam Bids to Patrol Project” 01-04-1992
  19. Orlando Sentinel “Tenants Consider Hiring Farrakhan Group To Patrol” 01-05-1992
  20. Newsday “Muslims Bid or HUD Deal Blasted Jews Oppose Try for Patrol Contract” 01-05-1992
  21. Philadelphia Inquirer “What Do Farrakhan and Followers Do” by C. Lewis 01-22-1992
  22. Los Angeles Times “Farrakhan’s Group In Line For Security Pact Patrol” by K. Ellingswood 07-02-1992
  23. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Security Patrol Hearing Set Sept 15 Permit? by K. Ellingswood 09-06-1992
  24. Los Angeles Times “Nation of Islam Firm Ok’d For Public Housing Patrols” by K. Ellingswood 09-16-1992
  25. Los Angeles Times “Patrols By Nation of Islam Cut Violence Security” by K. Ellingswood 12-27-1992
  26. Los Angeles Times “Islam Security Firm Taken Off Patrols at Venice Housing Complex Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-13-1993
  27. Boston Globe “Nation of Islam Walks Fine Line with Blacks” by A. Perlman 02-20-1994
  28. Chicago Tribune “Islam Firm Gets CHA Pact” 03-31-1994
  29. Chicago Tribune “State Investigates CHA Guard Contract” 04-01-1994
  30. Chicago Tribune “Vigils Recognize South Side’s Violent Turn” by S. Rhodes 04-04-1994
  31. Chicago Tribune “A Holistic Solution For The CHA” by F. McRoberts 05-05-1994
  32. Chicago Tribune “Muslim Affiliated CHA Guards Accused of Impersonating Cops” 06-27-1994
  33. Chicago Tribune “Guarded Optimism At Rockwell Nation of Islam Force Walking A Fine Line At Troubled CHA Complex” by F. McRoberts 07-06-1994
  34. Chicago Tribune “Four Guards At ChA are Found Not Guilty” 01-04-1995
  35. Sun Sentinel “HUD Checking Discrimination Charges” 01-21-1995
  36. Pittsburgh Post “Hiring of Nation of Islam Patrols Studied by Sub-Committee” 01-27-1995
  37. Chicago Tribune “Law Makers in furor Over Black Muslims” 03-03-1995
  38. Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam Contracts Examined” 03-03-1995
  39. Washington Post “Security Firms Found Separate From Farrakhan” 03-03-1995
  40. Chicago Tribune “The Business of Security Nation Linked Guards Earn Tenant Distrust” By W. Gaines 03-13-1995
  41. Chicago Tribune “HUD Tired of CHA Failures Lane’s Exit Brims with Irony” by. F. McRoberts 05-28-1995
  42. Chicago Tribune ” HUD Didn’t Probe Nation of Islam Pacts Security Deals Linked to Farrakhan Group” by D. Jackson 10-13-1995
  43. Chicago Tribune “Nation of Islam Losing CHA Contracts” by D. Jackson 02-17-1996
  44. Orlando Sentinel “Nation of Islam Linked Company out of Bidding” 02-18-1996
  45. Austin American Statesman ” Farrakhan’s Tour Sparks Criticism” 02-22-1996
  46. Chicago Tribune ” Security Supervisor Convicted of Murder” by T. Wilson 08-23-1998
  47. Chicago Tribune ” US Drops Bank Fraud Charge Against Ex- CHA Chief Lane” by M. O’Connor 03-06-2001
  48. Chicago Tribune ” Court is Told of Store Plan at Lane Mall But Nation of Islam Aide Concedes No Steps Taken to Launch Project” by M. O’Connor 03-15-2001
  49. New York Times “Questions Shadow New Jackson Advisor” by S. Wax man 01-03-2004
  50. The Baltimore Evening Sun “Muslims’ Security Patrols Urged for Public Housing High-Rises” by R. Hills on 09-28-1992
  51. The Baltimore Sun “Muslims Patrols Proposed For Public Housing” by R. Hilson 09-29-1992
  52. The Baltimore Sun “For The Young, ‘X’, symbolizes the Hip Hints at their Heritage” by R. Hilson 11-17-1992
  53. The Baltimore Sun “Clean Up Blitz at Flag House Courts” by M. Simmons & A. Fletcher 06-02=1993
  54. The Baltimore Sun “Cleanup, better security, Transform Flag House Courts” by M. Fletcher 06-07-1993
  55. The Baltimore Sun “Transformation at Flag High Rises” 06-09-1993
  56. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Courts Celebrates Rebirth’ by E. Heard 06-13-1993
  57. The Baltimore Sun “Housing Commissioner Operates by His Rules Blunt, Savvy Henson Rejuvenates agency” by M. Fletcher 10-03-1993
  58. The Baltimore Sun “Flag House Court: Suddenly Cleaner, Safer, Nicer” by M. Fletcher 11-01-1993
  59. The Baltimore Sun “The Good Old Days at Flag House Courts Woman, Daughter Remember Fondly” by M. Fletcher 11-16-1993
  60. The Baltimore Sun “Community Respect Arms Nation of Islam” by M. Fletcher 12-12-1993
  61. The Baltimore Sun “For Mfume, A Quick Divorce From The Nation of Islam Would Not be Easy” by S. Baer 02-02-1994
  62. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch “Nation of Islam’s Security Efforts Win Friends with Downtrodden” by A. Perlman 02-24-1994
  63. The New York Times “As Farrakhan Group Land Jobs From Government Debate Grows” by S. Holmes 03-04-1994
  64. Afro-American Red Star “Jewish Group Levels Attack on Muslims Security Contract” by J. Williams 03-12-1994
  65. Austin American Statesman “As Farrakhan Groups Win Contracts, Debate Grows’ by S. Holes 03-13-1994
  66. The Baltimore Sun “Nation of Islam Security Wins Contract for Public Housing, Despite high Bid” by E. Siegel 05-05-1994
  67. Philadelphia Tribune “Baltimore Cancels NOI Housing Security Contract” by T. Spangler 11-14-1995
  68. The Baltimore Sun “Tenant Leaders Say Security Declines In Projects” by j. Jacobson 02-07-1996
  69. The Baltimore Sun “Security Issues Raised in Wake of Boy’s Slaying” by P. Herman & R. Irwin 02-28-1996
  70. The Baltimore Sun “City Fires High Rise Security” by R. Matthews 02-08-1997
  71. The Afro-American Red Star ‘Housing Authority Tells Wells Fargo to Step’ by T. White 02-15-1997
  72. The Baltimore Sun ‘business with Ties to Welch gets Contract; housing security operator includes NOI Aides” by W. Roberts 04-05-1997
  73. The Baltimore Sun “Schmoke Leaving Mixed Legacy” by G. Shields 12-05-1999
  74. The Baltimore Sun “end of a Pubic Housing Era High Rises” by E. Siegel 02-08-2001
  75. The Philadelphia Tribune “Jews divided on Muslim PHA Deal” by B. Wright 08-21-1992
  76. The Philadelphia Inquirer “Nation of Islam guards Bring Some Peace, Some Controversy” by T. Samuel 08-14-1992
  77. Philadelphia Daily News “Project Residents Files Suit” by S. Flanders 04-08-1993
  78. Philadelphia Inquirer “Three Sue Abbottsford Managers, Guards, Alleging Beatings” by T. Samuel 04-16-1993
  79. Philadelphia Tribune “Spread Report: Islam and Black Community” by B. Wright 06-18-1993
  80. New York Times “Muslim Guards: Security Unit Maintaining Pride” by M. Tabor 01-06-1992
  81. New York Times “An Inquiry Spreads Blame For Deaths at a New York Gym” by J. Berger 01-16-1992
  82. New York Times “Neighborhood Report: Coney Island; Islamic Guard Unit Outsed” by J. Steinhauer 11-13-1994
  83. Newsday “Assemblymen Gets some Help Brooklyn Democrat is Joined by GOP in Taking on Muslim Security Group” by B. Russel and M. Parente 02-08-1995
  84. Newsday “Brooklyn in Albany Shaking Up the Capitol” 03-28-1995
  85. New York Times “Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  86. New York Times “Slur by a Nation of Islam Leader Stirs Anger” 09-22-1996
  87. New York Amsterdam News “Tenants in Uproar as partaking Axes X-Men” by A. Sinclair 09-28-1996
  88. New York Amsterdam News “Van Blasts Pataki for Cancelling X-Men’s Pact” by J. Z. Browne 10-19-1996
  89. New York Times “X-Me’s Foe; Spotlight on a Corner” by A. Jacobs 10-20-1999
  90. The Villiage Voice “Truth Justice and the X-Men” by V. Srivastava 10-29-1997
  91. New York Times “dispute Over Guards With Farrakhan Link Moves toCourt” 05-25-1997
  92. Newsday “$200 M Suit Against Rep King Dismisssed” by Y. Ellen 11-07-1999
  93. New York Daily News “Farrakhan Linked Lawsuit Out” by r. Gerry 11-08-1999
  94. Los Angeles Times “Security Firm Taken Off Venice Patrols Safety” by K. Ellingswood 08-14-1993
  95. The Washington Post  ” Nation of Islam Agency Says Jews Forced HUD’s Action” by L. Adams 11-11-1995
  96. Austin American Statesman “Nation of Islam Security Unit Threatens to SUe HUD” 11-11-1995
  97. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Agency Fights US Decision Court Asked to Rule in MD Housing Cast” 11-16-1995
  98.  Baltimore Jewish Times “Facing Eviction: Nation of Islam Security Agency Blames Jewish Influence for its Ousting From Baltimore’s Public Housing Projects” D. Conn 11-17-1995
  99. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Files Multi-million Dollat SUit Against HUD” A. McCarthy 11-18-1995
  100. Afro-American Red Star “Tenants are Losers” 11-18-1995
  101. The Washington Post ” Ruling Against Nation of Islam” 12-07-1995
  102. Baltimore Jewish Times ” NOI Security Lawsuit Dismissed For Lack of Case” D. Conn 05-24-1996
  103. The Washington Post “Muslim Dopebusters To Widen Patrol; At Rally Leaders Announce They’ll Enter Paradise Manor” J. Rupert 04-30-1988
  104. The Washington Post “The Uneasy Peace At Clifton Terrace; Muslim Guard in NW Draws Mixed Review” G. Escobar 05-28-1992
  105. The Washington Post “Urban Problems, Pastoral Settings” K. Harrison 08-20-1992
  106. The Washington Post “Yo! A Rapper’s Domestic Poliscy Plan; How Clinton Can Bring Hope to Alienated Black America” by Paris (Rapper) 01-03-1993
  107. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Firm Fights King, ADL” 03-11-1995
  108. The Washington Post “DC Hires Nation of Islam Guards for SE Complex; Public Housing Chief Cites Patrols’ Success at Other Developments in Nation” V. Loeb 05-04-1995
  109. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Guard Stabbed at SE Complex” by R. Cateneda and W. Melillo 05-12-1995
  110. New Orleans Times-Picayune “DC Residents Firght Development Guards” 05-12-1995
  111. The Washington Post “Potomac Gardens Quiet After Fights; Residents Ask City Officials to Keep Nation of Islam Guards on Duty” H. Harris 05-13-1995
  112. The Washington Post “DC Rehires Nation of Islam to Patrol Potomac Gardens” by V. Loeb 05-17-1995
  113. Afro-American Red Star “Nation of Islam Gets Temporary Contract” J.F. Brown 05-20-1995
  114. Afro-American Red Star “Potomac Gardens Contract Up For Bid” J.F. Brown 05-27-1995
  115. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Security Firm Seeks Backruptcy Protection” by V. Loeb 06-03-1995
  116. The Washington Post “Off-Duty Police Could Patrol Potomac Gardens” By B. Loeb 06-10-1995
  117. The Washington Post “Police Start Round the Clock Patrols at Potomac Gardens” by. R.H. Hamil 06-17-1995
  118. Afro-American Red Star “NOI Security Insecure in USA” G. Gilmore 07-08-1995
  119. The Washington Post “Ex-Guard Convicted in Assault Case” 07-15-1995
  120. New Pittsburgh Courier “HUD Orders NOI Contract Termination” by T. Spangler 12-02-1995
  121. DOPEBUSTER by Richard Muhammad Copyright 2019 printed by 48HrBooks

Dopebusters Drug Patrols

In the Spring of 1965, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology published a work on the threat of the Nation of Islam (NOI) to the police. A summary of the NOI of Islam beliefs was given. The religion centers on the idea that the ruling white man is destined for a fall. The members do see whites as the devil, but G-d has predetermined the end of the white man’s rule. Blacks are to separate and become an independent state before the fall to avoid catastrophe. So the movement has no reason to attack the police directly. The NOI was deemed not to be a direct threat to the police as a whole. The security/militia force Fruit of Islam (FOI) my resist police in small incidence, but there was no rebellion planned.

The reputation of the Fruit of Islam grows from the 1960s to the 1980s and residents at the Mayfair Mansions take notice. Violence and the drug trade had enveloped the community that was now nicknamed “Little Beiruit.” The Nation of Islam begins selling their paper in the complex and residents notice the drug dealers leave while the NOI was present. A group of concerned citizens asked the Nation of Islam to patrol the area to stop drug dealers. Abdul Alim Muhammad, leader of DC’s Mosque #4, agreed and the “Dopebusters” were born in 1988.

Police Chief, Maurice Turner, reluctantly agrees to work with the NOI Drug Patrols. The story of the Dopebusters drew national attention and continued violence at the Mayfair would draw negative attention to the city. Council members and many constituents in the Mayfair publically supported the effort. Turner decided that the NOI would only patrol and call authorities when they saw something. The guards were not to use any violence.

The problem in District 6, which included the Mayfair, was a small police presence. They had 235 officers patrolling the district, which led to the smallest ratio of officers to residents. [2] Because of increased attention from media, the chief agreed to concentrate his force at the Mayfair.[3] So those that used to deal at the Mayfair moved to neighboring housing projects.[3] The citizens at the Mayfair were grateful to have peace in their neighborhood, and they praised the guards for granting them peace. The NOI was allowed to fly their flag over the projects, as the Islamic Caliphs did in the old days. [3]

On April 19, 1988, a man with a shotgun confronted an NOI guard. The guard disarms the man by kicking the gun out of his hand. Ten men proceed to beat the man unconscious. An NBC news team catches the melee on film. The guards see that they are being recorded and began to attack the cameraman to ensure the footage is not aired on television. One of the guards was arrested along with the man that welded the shotgun. The story made headlines and Mosque #4 had to issue an apology. Residents of the Mayfair picketed in support of the guards. [17]

Dr. Alim Muhammad gave a press conference on April 30, 1988. Accompanying him were hundreds of supporters of the Nation of Islam patrols. In the speech, Alim Muhammad chastised the media in elevating the one instance of overreach, and not the fact they ended open-air drug sales in less than a month. He invites Christians, Jews, and fellow Muslims to join in the Patrols because they would soon expand to Paradise Manor. The most inflammatory aspect of the speech was the accusation that many police were involved in drug sales. This accusation that could not be proven hurt the ability of the security forces to work with the police.

The beating of a news crew was not the only instance of overreach. An apartment building manager accused the guards of attempting to extort $5,000 from her company.[6] However, the NOI guards would find other ways to finance their patrol in the way of government contracts.

The success from Mayfair made FOI guards a hot commodity in many low-income housing areas. The NOI Security Agency – Washington was incorporated in 1990 to win government contracts in security. In the same manner, other NOI security agencies emerged in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Chicago. The DC agency expanded its patrol to Clifton Terrace and Potomac Gardens.

The Clifton Terrace Patrols began in May of 1992. Most of the residents supported the new patrols. However, there was also vocal opposition. A group of men threatened the guards with violence on May 5. In response, a guard allegedly attacked resident James Earl Keech. Later that day, the unarmed guards encountered gunfire. Police were slow to arrive but arrested Taino M. Granum who had a stolen gun on his person. The event shows how cooperation between police and the guards began to break down. Both sides gave different accounts to the police. The public housing authority ended the security contract a short time later.

The American Jewish Committee and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) both took issue with an anti-semitic group getting government contracts. The ADL published a report in 1995 detailing contract discrepancies in the NOI security contracts. The ADL claimed that the NOI security agencies were directly connected to the NOI. Most of the evidence in the report came from the NOI newsletter, <u>The Final Call</u>. In the paper, the NOI praises the work of the security agencies as a victory for the Nation of Islam as a whole.

The report sparked outrage from the public. Bob Dole and Peter King, both Republicans, launch a senate investigation. If the security firm violated procurement law, Housing and Urban Development (HUD) would have to terminate the contracts. Peter King wanted the NOI listed as a hate group even though the American Civil Liberties Union did not list them as such.

HUD Secretary Henry Cisneros defended the decision to award NOI security firms contracts. Many members of The Congressional Black Caucus also supported the NOI effort. The firms were not legally linked to the Nation of Islam religious organization, and to Cisneros’ knowledge, the guards did not proselytize on duty. Therefore to deny them contracts would be religious discrimination. It is important to remember the Republicans had recently won both houses.

The six-week investigation concluded in March of 1995. There was no evidence of large-scale proselytizing while guards were on duty and the investigation confirmed the security firms were not linked to the Nation of Islam. There was also no evidence that the firms discriminated against non-Muslims or women. Most of the interviews with residents of the areas the security firms patrolled said the guards are more courteous than other private guards. Residents, white and black, both agreed their neighborhoods were markedly safer.

After the investigation Nation of Islam security wins a contract to patrol Potomac Gardens. The original contract was awarded under emergency conditions for two weeks at $30,000. Again most residences wanted the guards, but there was also strong opposition. One woman interviewed by the Washington Post said that she shielded a man from an NOI beating. The guards yelled “Black Power, Black Power” after the incident. [109]

On May 12, 1995 NOI guard James Baldwin was allegedly stabbed in the chest by resident Paul Sparks. The event was the third violent event during the two weeks Potomac Gardens had a patrol. Earlier an NOI guard was struck with a bottle. The guards retaliate by assaulting a resident suspected of throwing the bottle. The incidents sparked City Council to visit the project.

During the visit Councilman Frank Smith had this to say:

“There’s no question about the fact that the people who live over there see this as a form of relief from the drug sales…The sale of drugs around public housing complexes is ultimately a police problem, and it will not be solved in a lasting way at Potomac Gardens or anywhere else until a new police division responsible for public housing is created”.[112]

After the City Council visited they decide to extend the emergency contract another two weeks. The guards did stop open-air drug sales, even with a few instances of over-reach. By June 6, the emergency contract would end and the NOI would need to win the contact under normal bidding circumstances. Unfortunately, the Nation of Islam Security Agency flies for bankruptcy protection in June of 1995. The firm claims $620,000 in assets and $760,000 in liabilities. Of the liabilities, $53,000 was back taxes to Washington, DC. The DC Housing Authority had to take into account NOI Security’s financial state during the contract bid, and they lost their bid.

The Potomac Garden patrol was taken up by off-duty police officers. The officers were paid overtime with the same Federal funds that would have been used for the private guards. Ultimately, the responsibility for reducing crime fell back on the police. With increased police presence, the crime problem in Washington, DC subsided.

Sources for Dopebusters Articles

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Sources

Print Sources

  1. Washington Informer “Fish Program Launched” by Akmal 05-09-1984
  2. Washington Post “Muslim Leader Says DC Police ‘Involved’ in Drug Activity” by S. Horwitz and P. Gaines-Carter 04-28-1988
  3. Wall Street Journal “Frontier Justice” 06-16-1988
  4. The Christian Science Monitor “On the Street to Fight Drugs, These People Wear No Badge” by L. Overbea 07-05-1988
  5. The Washington Post “Complaints of DC Police Misconduct” 09-02-1988
  6. The Washington Post “Farrakhan Visits Mayfair, Pushes Muslim Drug Plan; City Encouraged to Consider His Method” by C. Sanchez 12-14-1988
  7. The Washington Post “Sadly, Reports on Mr. Farrakhan Are Accurate” 11-26-1989
  8. The Washington Post “Farrakhan’s Uphill Candidate; Nation of Islam Spokesman Abdul Alim Muhammad’s Long Road to Traditional Politics” by M.W. Thompson 08-02-1990
  9. The Washington Post “First Black Challenger Puts the Heat on Hoyer” by K. Jenkins Jr 09-01-1990
  10. The Washington Post “Bringing Race and Politics to the Surface in Pr. George’s Series: Campaign ’90; Campaign in Maryland” by M.L. Norris 09-04-1990
  11. The Washington Post “Glendening, Hoyer Sail to Victory” by M.L. Norris 09-12-1990
  12. The Washington Post “P.G. Blacks Rejected Racial Campaigns; Independents’s Hopes for Voter Revolt Failed” by M.L. Norris & E.L. Meyer 09-13-1990
  13. The Washington Post “Resolution for Muslim Leader Scuttled” by R. Sanchez 07-08-1992
  14. The Washington Post ” Thomas Drops Another Nation of Islam Bombshell” by R. Sanchez 07-16-1992
  15. The Washington Post “Kelly Honors Nation of Islam Activist Proclamation Riles Jewish Leaders” by R. Sanchez 07-18-1992
  16. The Washington Post “Mayor Kelly’s Proclamation” 07-22-1992
  17. Washington Informer “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad: Deserving, Devoted, Caring” by L. Wiggins 07-22-1992
  18. The Washington Post “Muhammad’s Actions Speak Louder” 08-01-1992
  19. The Washington Post “Blind Eye to Prejudice” 08-02-1992
  20. Afro-American Red Star “The Cheated Me At 15; I Am Still Fighting Today: Muhammad Says” by. A.A. Muhammad 09-18-1993
  21. The Washington Post “Nation of Islam Official Assails Jewish Group; ADL Accused of Conspiring Against Blacks” 09-08-1994
  22. Afro-American Red Star “Farrakhan Calls for 1 Million Men to March on Washington” by G. Gilmore 10-22-1994
  23. Colorado Springs Gazette-Telegraph “Black Leader Focus on Health Care / March Speaker Urges Managed-Care Program” 04-29-1996
  24. Afro-American Red Star “October 16 is World’s Day of Atonement” by G. Gilmore 10-12-1996
  25. Philadelphia Tribune “NOI Official: Hospital Will Soon Release Farrakhan” by M.J. rochon 04-06-1999
  26. Afro-American Red Star “Howard University Shines” 04-10-1999
  27. The Final Call “Nation of Islam’s Zimbabwe AIDS Project Seeks Donations for Treatment Program” 12-04-2002
  28. The Final Call “Interview with Nation of Islam Minister of Health, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad” 12-10-2006
  29. The Final Call “Police Checkpoints Return to DC Neighborhood” 08-12-2008
  30. McClatchy – Tribune Business News “Man Sacrifices His Privacy to Help Others” by H. Jackson Jr 08-20-2009
  31. The Final Call “How to Eat to Live: Focus on Food and Well Being” 03-16-2011
  32. The Final Call “Taking it to the Street: FOI Promote Peace Nationwide” 07-25-2012
  33. The Final Call “A Torchlight for American: The Nation of Islam Offers Solutions to Fight Crime” 08-10-2012
  34. The Final Call “The Time and WHat Must Be Done” 06-11-2013
  35. The Final Call “Lies, Spies and Jewish Assault on Truth” by R. Muhammad 06-13-2013
  36. The Final Call “Travyon Martin & The Call to True Black Unity” 08-05-2013
  37. The Final Call “Building Up Young Black Men” 03-12-2019
  38. Dominiquediprima.com “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad”
  39. New Journal and Guide “Needle Exchange Ineffective Weapon Against AIDS” by A.A. Muhammad 06-24-1998
  40. yale Journal of Law and Liberation “Black Nation Under Siege” by A.A. Muhammad Issue1 Article 11
  41. Philadelphia Tribune “If Clinton is Truly Sorry, He Should Take Next Steps” by A.A. Muhammad 07-01-1997
  42. New Pittsburgh Courier “Apology Not Atonement” by A.A. Muhammad 07-19-1997
  43. New Pittsburgh Courier “Tuskegee Study: Apology Is Not Atonement” by A.A. Muhammad 07-26-1997
  44. Philadelphia Tribune “Human Rights Entitle Blacks to Healthcare” by A.A. Muhammad 08-19-1997
  45. Philadelphia Tribune “Notion of Civilized Humanity is Hanging in Balance” by A.A. Muhammad 01-20-1998
  46. Philadelphia Tribune “Civilized Humanity is Hanging in the Balance” by A.A. Muhammad 014-27-1998
  47. The Chicago Tribune “Black America: ” The Fattest Nation on Earth” by A.A. Muhammad 06-11-1998
  48. Los Angeles Sentinel “Fake Food Flood Continues” by A.A. Muhammad 06-11-1998

Video Sources

The Youtube Playlist can be found HERE

  1. “My Journey to Allah” on IRONMUHAMMAD68 published 03-01-2016
  2. “Original Food & Human Potential: Dr. Alim Muhammad at TEDxHarlem” on TEDx Talks published 07-30-2012
  3. “The Health & Well Being of Humanity: How to Eat to LIVE – Dr. Alim Muhammad” on Knowledge for Life published on 04-26-2011
  4. “Dr. Alim Muhammad: “The Negro” 04/16/06 Long Beach Ca” on Truth/Controversy published on 07-23-2019
  5. “Dr. Abdul ALim Muhammad – Raw Milk Interview” on beesford published 10-25-2011
  6. “The S.T.E.M. Files: “The Abundant Life Journey”, with Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad 10/25/18″ on OMSTV published 10-25-2018
  7. “How To Eat To Live Vs The Devil’s Kitchen – Dr. Alim Muhammad Speaks” on Saviours Helper published 05-01-2018
  8. “Raw Milk & Alpha Interferon Treatments for Aids & Many Other Diseases – Dr. Alim Muhammad Speaks” on Saviours Helper published 04-25-2019
  9. “FFA #4 Nation of Islam w/ Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad” on DCArts90s published on 03-11-2019
  10. “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad on The Crossfire Program” on IRONMUHAMMAD68 published 04-18-2015
  11. “Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Performs A Unique Body Healing Treatment” on ItsNationTime published 12-10-2009
  12. “Dr. Alim Muhammad MD talks about Nutrition Response Testing (R)” on Ulan Nutritional Systems published 02-22-2012
  13. “Dr. Abdul Alim Mohammad” on bahram heidari published 09-12-2014
  14. “Dr. Alim’s Abundant Life Show: Episode 1 -7” on Dr. Alim’s Abundant Life Show published in 2017
  15. “Alim Muhammad demands all go clear” on The Jandar111 published 10-23-2012
  16. “Scientology Makes whites not devils anymore?” on justiceimhotep published 01-04-2012
  17. “Cokley Vs Rubin” on TheOldFilmArchive on 02-14-2012
  18. “The Successful Practice of How To Eat To Live in 2012 – Dr. Alim” on N.O.I. Buffalo published 07-07-2013
  19. “Haarp Earth Quaked Haiti, Dr. Alim Muhammad – Haiti Now Conference Saviors Day 2010 – Part 1 -10” on Saviours Helper published 03-06-2010
  20. “Swine Flu, Vaccinations and Solutions Part 1 – 11” on Elias Muhammad Published 2009
  21. “Swine Flu, Vaccination and Prevention Guidance Part 1 – 8” on Elias Muhammad published 09-17-2009

Video Sources from Final Call

  1. The Earthquake in Haiti: An Eyewitness Report
  2. My Journey to Allah

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad

Accomplishments

  • Graduated Case Western Reserve Medical School in 1975
  • Paratroper in military
  • Minister of Mosque #4  in Washington, DC 1981
  • National Spokesman for Louis Farrakhan 1988
  • Nation of Islam’s First Minister of Health 1992
  • Mayor of Washington, DC declared a day in his honor
  • Has a wife, Alima, and nine children including Kush Amir, Ajane, and Kadira

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad was born Maurice Peters Jr near York, Pennsylvania in 1948. From the beginning, Dr. Muhammad and his family were socially conscious. He went to an NAACP convention in Harrisburg, PA at age 6. Muhammad’s father Maurice Peterson Sr organized a protest against police brutality. The family was also involved in the Civil Rights Movement and marched with King. However, racism hit Muhammad in a personal way while going to an all-white high school at age 15.

Maurice Peters Sr was a post office worker. He saved enough money to move his family to the all-white suburb of Shiloh, PA. The whites of the area organized to keep the family out. Their plot was to harass his children to intimidate Mr. Peters into returning to York. One of the black maids in York got wind of the plot and warned them. When the Peterson family arrived, white residents blocked their moving van and demanded they leave. Undeterred Mr. Peterson entered the neighborhood in which he lived until the day he died.

Once Muhammad began coursework at the local high school, his grades fell from straight A’s to C’s and D’s. His parents thought he was not applying himself. When confronted, Muhammad said maybe he is not as smart as everyone thought. Upon hearing that his parents had to get to the bottom of the situation. His parents began reviewing his work and found he got most of the questions marked wrong were correct. After taking the corrected test to the principal, the school changed his grades. After this incident, Muhammad always questioned authority, not his ability.

Due to his intellectual ability and support from his parents, he made grades high enough to win a scholarship at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio. His original major was poetry. When in college, he was introduced to the philosophy of Elijah Muhammad and wanted to change his major to something that would aid his people in the fight against oppression. He became a Biology / Pre-med major.

After receiving a degree in biology, Case Western Reserve Medical School accepted him in 1975. Muhammad told the Washington Post none of the fourteen blacks that enrolled in the program that year wanted a “Beverly Hills” style practice. All wanted to serve the urban community. While in college, one of his fellow black students faced expulsion because of grades. Muhammad and others were able to organize to keep the student in college.

Muhammad first heard Farrakhan speak in 1974, while in college. After meeting and interacting for a short time, Farrakhan appointed Muhammad assistant minister of Mosque #18 in Cleveland. Once Muhammad graduated, he went to Harlem University Hospital to work as a surgeon. While working in Harlem Muhammad officially changed his name from Maurice X to Muki Fuad Muhammad El-Amin. Farrakhan changed his name to Abdul Alim Muhammad before granting the position of Minister of Mosque #4 in Washington, DC in 1981.

Howard University Hospital and Washington Hospital Center both employed Muhammad for a short period, but Muhammad realized his passion was alternative medicine. He founded Abundant Life Clinic in 1986. The medical approach of the clinic was community-centered, alternative medicine. Muhammad infused Ayurvedic medicine and Yoga into treatment plans. Abundant Life’s drug rehab became nationally known, and Farrakhan’s son Joshua received treatment there. The clinic was the first step in a national black health agenda. From his work at Abundant Life, he became the NOI’s first Minister of Health in 1992.

The Dopebuster’s drug program began in 1988 at Mayfair Mansions. The program was initiated at the request of residents to calm the drug activity that got the complex nicknamed “Little Beirut.” Because the Dopebuster mostly came from Mosque #4, Dr. Muhammad was the unofficial spokesman. The need for a spokesman came on the first day when guards beat a man that approached them welding a shotgun. Not only did the guards assault the man wielding the shotgun, but they also attacked a news-crew filming the beating.

During the press conference created to answer questions on the incident, Dr. Muhammad charged the police department for orchestrating drug sales. The charge was doubling down on comments he made during a radio interview earlier in the week. Muhammad presented no evidence during the interview or press conference. Dr. Muhammad never named any specific policemen. A police spokesman denied the charge. There were never any formal charges brought against the police by the NOI or Dr. Muhammad.

Steny Hoyer first became a Congressional Representative in 1981. His district, Maryland’s fifth, housed in Prince Georges County had a 50% Black population. Because the area had a large black population, Muhammad thought he could have a chance to unseat the incumbent. The campaign was launched in the summer of 1990.

Part of Muhammad’s platform was government funding for the NOI’s Dopebuster’s initiative that had recently spread nationwide. Muhammad was able to gather a respectable following amongst working-class blacks, due to incendiary rhetoric. According to the Washington Post, Muhammad said that white politicians were “slave masters of a white-run political machine” and Prince Georges County was “plantation politics at its worst.” He also said blacks are no more free in America than Apartheid South Africa. Muhammad accused the media of obsessing on his affiliation with the Nation of Islam, but opened his speeches with the Muslim greeting “Al-salam aleikum.” Critics brought up the fact he did not live in the fifth district and only registered to vote a few months before running.

Unfortunately, the Alim Muhammad campaign only raised $35,000. Aid from Farrakhan never materialized. The Nation of Islam leader canceled his appearance at three campaign events. Hoyer was able to raise $230,000, and $115,000 of it was spent on television ads, Muhammad had no chance. Hoyer had a solid lock on PG’s white vote and a respectable track record on black issues. Muhammad only got 20% of the vote on the September 11 primary.

In the summer of 1992, Washington DC city councilman Henry Thomas purposed making a day to honor Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad. The one Jewish member of the council, Jim Nathanson, opposed the resolution. The resolution was moved to committee which ensured the bill would die. The mayor, Sharon Pratt Kelly, took up the cause. The Washington Post accused her of pandering to poor and working-class blacks by approving the resolution. No matter what the motivation July 11, 1992, was declared Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad day by the mayor.

Prostate Cancer awareness is another point of advocacy for Dr. Muhammad because he also suffered from the disease. His prostate cancer diagnosis at age 36 was surprising because Muhammad was a vegetarian with no history of cancer in his family. He became a member and spokesman for the Empowerment Network, a group dedicated to spreading awareness about prostate cancer in the black community. His knowledge and personal experience became necessary when Louis Farrakhan afflicted with the disease in 1999. Muhammad served by informing the public on Farrakhan’s condition and helping chose the best hospital for the surgery, Howard University Hospital.

In 2010, Dr. Muhammad became part of a joint effort to provide earthquake relief to Haiti. The Church of Scientology and The Nation of Islam came together to improve the life of those hardest hit by the earthquake. The specific role of Dr. Muhammad was to provide wound care. He also documented the earthquake relief program in a personal blog.

Dr. Alim is currently practicing nutritional medicine in Bowie, MD. He makes few public appearances.

Sources

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad Series

Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad

Dopebusters Drug Patrols

Essay on Untouchability II: Social Undergirding of Caste

When most social analysts study India, they see the chief division as religion, Hindu vs. Muslim. However, it is also essential to understand caste divisions. These divisions are recognized by those that practice all the religions of India. Those in the lower caste, namely: primitive tribes, criminal tribes, and untouchables make up 60% of the population or 79.5 million people. Since the caste system is disenfranchising a larger number of people than the population of Japan, one cannot ignore the division.

As stated early, the lower or avarna castes: primitive tribes, criminal tribes, and the untouchables are unique on the subcontinent. Primitive tribes exist in the wilderness of India, living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The criminal tribes earn their name by raiding neighboring villages and committing assisinations. One clan called the Pindharies can muster up to 20,000 in Calvary. The clan of hired assassins is called, The Thugs. The government considers their acts legitimate business, and they pay taxes. Untouchables live observing Hindu culture and law. However, touching them would pollute a Hindu and require him to be cleansed at a temple.

Of the three avarna castes, Untouchables are the only group that has a social condition that cannot be changed. If a member of the primitive or criminal tribes decides to leave his group and enter Hindu society, they would be welcomed with open arms. An Untouchable could become the leader in his industry and would still cause a Hindu to be polluted. Therefore, Untouchable has a unique struggle in society. Ambedkar uses the analogy that Hindus relate to untouchables as a man relates to his shoes. Untouchables are just a means to an end.

The idea of caste causes separation in marriage, dining, and occupation. The specifics of the Caste System has changed as evidenced by records of foreign travelers to India. At the time of publishing of the treatise, Gandhi wanted Untouchables added to the least powerful caste, Shudra (Laborer). The Untouchables would not have permission to change occupations. The only difference would be, they would not pollute a person of a higher caste.

Aside from the fact that Hinduism promotes the caste system, the religion is also invalid because the highest form of religious experience is trance. It is absurd to think an abnormal psychological condition produced by artificial means is the sign of enlightenment. Trance (Samadhi) was just another aspect of Hindu metaphysics that prevented the population from moving toward rationalism. It is rationalism that will advance society and end discrimination.

Caste is a social order made sacred by the religion of Hinduism and enforced by Hindu law. The laws supporting caste are as old as antiquity, but they were rarely invoked. The laws supporting caste ended in 1850 with the Caste Disabilities Removal Act. The Caste system stayed intact despite not having legal bases. The fact the caste system survived without legal undergirding shows that religion served as the caste system’s base.

Hinduism was exceptionally robust in enforcing caste because it was a religion of a book without a prophet. Ambedkar defines his position by referencing Professor Max Muller’s work on classifying religions as natural vs. revealed. In the natural category, he groups the religion of aboriginal people such as Iroquois. The natural faiths classify objects and people as sacred or taboo and don’t use a personified being as supreme. The revealed religions are those that have a book revealed by a prophet. In the revealed camp, one would find most of the Abrahamic religions and Zoroastrianism. The Vedas are Hinduism holy book, but a prophet did not reveal them to the worshipers. Therefore the credibility of the book cannot be questioned by attacking the character or historical validity of a prophet.

The Caste System occupied a scared space in Hinduism. No other religion deemed any social order sacred. There have been those that have fought against the system such as the Buddha and King Vishvamitra. Yet the idea has persisted. Most religions consider economic activity outside the purview of religion. Combining religious/ social and economic disadvantage was a dangerous combination.

Ambedkar objected to Gandhi’s proportion that caste was the ideal form of society. In fact, caste is not founded on the cooperation of various professions, but their antagonism and class war. To justify his position, Ambedkar uses allegories from sacred Hindu texts that show that Kshatriya and Brahmin had a bloody civil war over the right to perform sacrifices. Bloody conflict is the inevitable result of the Caste System.

G-d’s Role for Black People in America

Michaux’s race philosophy can be summed up in the National Memorial to the Progress of the Colored Race in America. The monument established in 1936 served to commemorate the civilization of black people through slavery. The memorial and the resulting organization was centered around a few principles:

Historical – Chronicle notable events in the black race
Memorial- Recognition of exceptional black people
Humanitarian- cooperation to the material advancement of black people
Cultural- progress of blacks in art, music, and wholesome entertainment
Patriotic – not political, but a belief in the founding documents and love for America’s founding
Spiritual- not sectarian, but a general love of G-d and the divine

The memorial was built in Williamsburg to commemorate the first recorded landing of slaves in 1607 and the last slave ship to arrive in 1861. Michaux saw slavery as a positive good. Slavery civilized an otherwise barbarous group of people. Michaux had a ceremony to commemorate the arrival of the last slave ship in 1961.

In the document that explains the purpose of the monument, he defends Robert E Lee falsely stating he freed his slaves before assuming command of the Confederate army.

The memorial was on a 400-acre tract of land with eighty farms. The farms were cooperative, and the profits were split evenly among all the participants. Michaux supplied the farms with equipment and livestock. Plus there was a small farm college started in the area so people could learn the best methods for farming. The farm was established in 1936 and expanded in 1943. Michaux wanted the farm to feed the church in the event of another depression.

Michaux did see the role of the church in America as the watchdog of the government. Only when the church takes its rightful position in America will, including racial segregation end. The clergy was to praise and critique the government, not the congregation.

From the pulpit, Michaux cast Hoover as a modern day Saul. Hoover abandoned G-d’s plan when he attacked the bonus army, a group of WW1 veterans that were protesting for assistance. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a modern day, David ushering G-d’s plan, which was The New Deal. Those that oppose The New Deal oppose the divine plan. Michaux campaigned with FDR at a mass rally in Madison Square Garden in 1932.

G-d will bring social change through individual hearts. Not by civil disobedience or directly lobbying the government. That is the core disagreement between Solomon Michaux and Dr. King. Many KKK members supported Michaux because his philosophy did not require them to relinquish anything. Whites were able to determine how much freedom black people get. Black liberation is on the timetable of whites under Michaux’s philosophy.

Anti-Black Actions of Solomon Michaux

Michaux’s criticisms of Father Divine were well publicized. Many of these critiques, such as allowing members to refer to him as G-d and disallowing followers to have sex, are rooted in a deviation of orthodox Christianity. However, when agitated, Michaux would refer to Divine as “that little Negro,” “little black devil,” and “hellish black rascal.” Coming from a light skinned black man of mixed race, these comments could be seen as colorist. Here is a quote listed in the Baltimore Afro-American from Michaux on Father Divine in 1934:

“White people don’t love colored people; Jews don’t like Italians, and you blame it on the depression.

Many a white mouth has sucked a black breast – But because it gave forth white milk, they loved it. Colored people loved marse and massa.

It’s different now. Whites hate colored because they think colored shouldn’t be their equals. Colored hate whites because of slavery. Slavery was God’s plan to civilize us.

We could’ve been in Africa throwing cocoanuts at one another if we hadn’t been brought over here and made slaves. All races have had to be slaves at one time or another.

There is no depression in heaven. Fish still swim, flowers still bloom, and the sun needs no National Recovery Act to make it shine or stop shining. It’s you: all the trouble is with you and in you. You don’t love.

Go home tonight and kiss your husband. Wake him up if you have to. It may scare him to death, but do it anyway as your first act to prove you love everybody.”

In 1965, Solomon Michaux bought a 636 Acre Plot near Jamestown for $180,000. He decided to turn this land into a housing development for whites. It was to be named the ” Francis Lightfoot Lee Colony.” Many in the black press believed this was a nod to Confederate General Robert E Lee who descended from Francis Lightfoot Lee. One of the streets was to be named after Senator / Governor Harry Byrd, an arch-segregationist. Even though the plan was to sell the homes to whites, naming streets after slave owners and segregationists was another action that one could view as anti-black.

Solomon Michaux was known for opposing Dr. King in three ways. The first was demanding Dr. King apologize to J. Edgar Hoover for saying the FBI was a tool of white supremacy. The second was defaming King by insinuating he was a communist and that he had affairs. The third was picketing an SCLC event in Baltimore in which King called for a boycott of Alabama, in 1965. His opposition inspired several opinion articles in the Baltimore Afro-American. All the writers felt that Michaux never gave a rational explanation for his opposition to King. We now know that Michaux was working for the FBI.

The Gospel Spreading Church website claims that Michaux referred to King as a “saint” in the church paper Happy News. The use of the word “saint” was satirical, according to Lerone Martin’s article in Religion and American Culture. Michaux would use the term to mock King while spreading lies about him being a communist and having affairs.

The Gospel Spreading Church alleged that Michaux had a protest for Civil Rights in 1961. There was one article in the Baltimore Afro-American that referenced the protest, dated December 9, 1961. The protest was not about Civil Rights, but Protestant / Catholic unity. Michaux sent a burlap sack and hood to John F Kennedy hoping he would wear it during his Thanksgiving meal. The actual protest had 500 participates from the various branches of the Gospel Spreading Church. Churchgoers demonstrated at the Shrine of the Immaculate Conception and two Baptist Churches. The article never mentioned Civil Rights.

Michaux: The Father of Churches

In Newport News, VA, a baby was born on November 7, 1884. The father was of mixed Black and Jewish Ancestry. He wants the baby to be named Solomon. The mother of Black and Native American parentage, wants the baby to be named Lightfoot. They decided on the name Lightfoot Solomon Michaux. The baby was born with a caul, a membrane resembling a veil covering his face. A caul signifies the baby will grow up to be a man of prominence.

John, the father, was a fantastic patriarch for the 1880s. He descended from a Jewish man that immigrated to Richmond before the Civil War. Due to his father coming from a line of merchants John opened a store. Solomon Michaux helped his father run the store and opened his store later in life. However, Michaux had a creative side his father did not have. He decides to open a dancing school as his second venture.

It is through his dancing school that he met his lovely wife. Mary Eliza Pauline was a student at said school and found Solomon to be quite handsome and charismatic. Their relationship began when he saw Mary crying outside the house of her then lover. Solomon felt sorry for her and made a deal. If she agreed to be in a monogamous relationship with him, they could live together. The couple will never have biological children but will adopt a daughter in the 1950s named Ieeda (Aeeda) Martin. The girl was an Eskimo from Alaska.

Mary’s origins were always questionable. She was orphaned at an early age and lived in a room above Gresham’s Bar in the Red Light District. According to the history of the Church of God, she served as a missionary attempting to save the souls of those in the Red Light District. Most people in town believed her to be a prostitute. One of the people believed the rumor was Solomon’s father, John and this rumor led to animosity between Mary and the rest of the Michaux’s. Mary was also seven to fifteen years older, her husband. Despite her flaws, she was extremely religious and encouraged her husband to join St. Timothy Church of Christ (Holiness).

Solomon and John landed a contract to supply the local harbor with vegetables. Part of the reason he won the deal was he obtained green peas out of seasons. Little did the government know he was taking dry peas, soaking them in water and green food coloring. Ultimately, the venture was profitable, and he was able to build a business network.

Mary sees the town of Hopewell as a lost city. As the old testament towns of old, licentiousness has overcome the city. The new army base and factory caused a population explosion. More people were at the gambling hall than the church. Mary wants Solomon to build a new church to save the people of Hopewell.

John likes the idea of Solomon preaching and offered to pay for Baptist seminary. When Mary hears this, she hits the roof. Mary wanted Solomon’s church to be pure, and Baptist preachers were far from pure. Many of them propositioned her even though she was married. Solomon decided to side with his wife in the argument and started the church from a tent. He would find others to preach.

Solomon starts a church in 1917 with a land grant from the DuPont corporation. He built a white frame structure and found visiting elders to preach. The church was called Everybody’s Mission. One of the guest preachers was a man named Brother Diaz. During the Diaz service, a vision comes to the pastor. Diaz tells the congregation that Solomon Michaux was destined to lead them.

Solomon began what would later be known as the Gospel Spreading Church in 1919 from a tent in Newport News. He was able to get over 150 members in three months. By November, he was able to buy the current building on 19th and Jefferson. He would obtain the Lincoln Theater in this town in 1929. The congregation wouldn’t stop growing and a second church began in Hampton, Spring of 1922.

The church had a very charismatic style known for vibrant songs and captivating preaching. The members were also not shy about proclaiming to the world their love for Jesus. In October 1922, Michaux was arrested for leading a parade in the early morning that awoke the residents of Newport News. He was convicted and ordered to pay a fine or go to jail. Michaux chose jail. The judge realizing Michaux would be considered a martyr ordered his car to the confiscated to pay the $25 fine. The judge offered to give Michaux the excess from the sale of the vehicle. Michaux refused.

After World War 1, coastal Virginia experiences an economic downturn. Michaux responds by creating the “Common Plan.” Members that had work would pay into a fund; in return, unemployed members would do basic chores and menial tasks for the paying members. The Common Plan helped some members stay in Virginia until the economy turned around. Others left to find work in different states.

The first group left in 1924 left for the coal mines in Edenborn, Pennsylvania close to Pittsburgh. A church was established in this area in 1930. The group in Pennsylvania expanded and a Gospel Spreading Church was also founded in Philadelphia in 1935.

The second group left to find work in Baltimore with a church established in 1923. Another church was created in the Baltimore suburb of Essex, MD in 1924. The Essex church attracted a white family later found to be part of the Ku Klux Klan. They were attracted to the charismatic and patriotic preaching style of Solomon Michaux. The white family was so impressed with the sermon they ask Solomon Michaux to give a lecture at their home church.

Going to a white church with a heavy KKK presence did give Michaux pause, but he saw it as part of his mission. He agrees to speak at the white church because he feels G-d will protect him from any harm. The church enjoys his sermon and from then on whites regularly attend Michaux’s Essex Church.

In 1926, Virginia passed the segregation laws, commonly known as Jim Crow. He invited his mixed congregation to worship in Virginia. The multi-racial church service violated state law, and Michaux was arrested. He had to pay a fine as punishment, but he continues to speak out against segregated churches. The Church of God had integrated services in any state that would allow them. He held firm to the belief that G-d’s law supersedes any state or national law. In G-d’s house, there was no segregation.

Washington, DC of 1928 was a prime location for a new church, so one was founded on Georgia Ave. A large black migrant population that was extremely poor entered DC. The affluent black community already in the district ostracized the newcomers. Michaux understands many of the new arrivals might not attend church because they feel they can’t dress well enough. To service these people, he decides on creating a radio ministry.

WJSV was one of the local radio stations. It was owned by James Vance who was part of the KKK and published their newspaper. Vance agrees to broadcast from a storefront location in DC, and so began the Radio Church of God in 1929.

The broadcast centered around music, even the sermons had a beat to them. The song the show is most famous for is “Happy Am I.” That is why Michaux is known as the “Happy am I, Preacher.”

Once Michaux became a household name, he hired tutors to teach him theology and other biblical concepts. He had limited literacy, so often the tutors would read to him. Using his newfound knowledge, he was able to build a biblical philosophy that mixed “New Thought” and the “Social Gospel” while being patriotic. The sermons were still simple enough for the average person to understand. Even when political topics were discussed, they were done simplistically.

The Radio Church of God was a top-rated show in the Mid-Atlantic region. When CBS bought WJSV in 1932, the Radio Church of God was the only show CBS kept from the original station. The show was broadcast of 52 CBS stations and in some international affiliates and had a viewership of 25 million people by mid-1930s.

Michaux not only established himself as a prophet but felt the need to expose false prophets. Father Divine was one of these false profits preaching a non-biblical gospel. Divine told his congregants that sex was wrong even within the confines of marriage. He also allowed his followers to refer to him as G-d on earth. Michaux had many revivals in New York at Father Divine’s house and headquarters Rockland Palace October 1934. Denouncing Divine was the focus of the Madison Square Garden Revival on October 7, 1934. Two of Divine’s so-called “Angels” testified against him. The Angels accused Divine of taking all the wages of congregants. A Gospel Spreading Church established a church in New York in 1934. The church’s goal was to stop the spread of Divine’s message.

The fame from radio opened more avenues for Michaux, leading to many multi-racial revivals in Washington, DC, and Pennsylvania. The annual baptism at Griffith Stadium etched Michaux in the minds and hearts of America. A documentary film was created on his life in 1942 “We’ve Come a Long, Long Way.”

Now the notoriety did not come without backlash. Michaux was known for attacking more traditional denominations. The Interdenominational Ministries Union started accusing Michaux’s church with being a cult. Michaux began to raise money to build a monument and farmers co-op in Williamsburg, VA. Many people accused him of misappropriating funds. Even though the charges were never proved in court, they did diminish his credibility. In 1938, CBS canceled the show, but Michaux broadcast independently from Washington, DC until he dies. Making The Radio Church of God the longest running radio show in history.

Solomon Michaux Newspaper Articles

Afro American Red Star

“A National Monument to the Progress of A Race” 10-16-1993

Atlanta Daily World

“Elder Michaux to Probe US Slavery” 08-29-1936

Baltimore Afro American
“Washington Turns to Religion and Mysticism in Tents” 09-24-1932
“Elder Michaux Places Satan’s Body in a Coffin” 04-07-1934
“9,000 Watch Michaux Drive Out the Devil” 06-09-1934
“Man You Have is Not Your Husband, Shouts Michaux” 09-15-1934
“Happy Am I Preacher is Ex-Virginia Fisherman” E.Rouzeau 10-06-1934
“Divine No God, Michaux” 10-13-1934
“Michaux is Still Driving Out the Devil in Harlem” 10-20-1934
“Elder Michaux an Evangelist Not A Preacher,says Ridout” by D.L. Ridout 11-10-1934
“Elder Brings War on Divine to Baltimore” 11-17-1934

“Michaux-Divine War Makes Broadway Columnist Chuckle” 12-08-1934

“Daddy Grace Sings ‘Happy Am I’ Dispite Copyright” 04-27-1935
“Elder Michaux’s Film has Private Showing in DC” 05-18-1935

“Michaux Rips Divine and Gets a Nip, Too” 05-01-1937
“Elder Michaux Spent $1100 in Collecting That Amount” 11-13-1937
“9000 to Hear Michaux Link Hitler with God’s Reform Program” 09-06-1941

“Michaux Terms Father Divine Devil Incarnate” M. Alston 08-24-1946
“Elder Michaux Hurt by Death of Deacon” 02-10-1951
“Michaux Denies RFC Fix Aid From Allen” 03-24-1951

“Bibles Dropped Near Russia” 07-11-1953
“Michaux Acquitted in Richmond Court” 07-23-1960
“Founders Day at Michaux’s Church” 03-11-1961
“The White Man is Trouble” by E. Peeks 09-23-1961
“5,000 to Hear Cult Leaders Debate” 09-23-1961
“Michaux Presents JFK with a Burlap Sack” 12-09-1961

“King-Hoover Issue And Elder Michaux” J.D. Williams 02-06-1965
“Picketting by Michaux Draws Blast” 04-10-1965

“Michaux and King” 04-17-1965
“Michaux Critical” 09-07-1968

“Michaux Happy News Noted for Flair, Style, and Drama” by R. Jenkins 10-26-1968
“Millions at Stake in Church Fight” 05-03-1969
“Minister Wins License; Succeeds Elder Michaux” 05-17-1969
“Secret Will to Lightfoot Michaux’s Millions Filed” by I. Ridley 04-04-1970
“Rabbi Abraham Hires Legal Aide in Michaux Will Case” 04-25-1970

Chicago Defender
“Michaux Victor in $50,000 Suit” 05-18-1935

“Elder Brands Divine the Devil” 05-15-1937
“Michaux to War on Father Divine” 08-19-1939

“20,000 Fete Elder Michaux For 20 Years of Religious Broadcasting” 10-06-1951

Cleveland Call and Post
“Elder Michaux Can’t Remember All About Housing Project Deal” by L. Lautier 10-23-1954

“Cassell Sues Michaux for for $962,075 in Housing Scandal” 11-13-1954

New (Norfolk) Journal and Guide
“Michaux Denies He Assaulted Lucas” 04-07-1934

“Elder Michaux Rose to Present Eminence After Peddling Fish” 04-28-1934
“Between the Lines” by G. Hancock 05-12-1934

“$3000 Restaurant Given to Michaux for Church of God” 07-21-1934
“Elder Michaux Blasts Divine” 05-08-1937
“Suit Seeks Check Up of Monies” 10-16-1937

“Cost $1,100 to Collect $1,100, says Michaux” 11-13-1937
“No Gain Made In Newport News, Evangelist Asserts” 11-20-1937
“Elder Michaux Wins Fight Over Property” 06-13-1942
“Elder Michaux Has Proposal In Collaboration with British Cleric” 09-23-1943

“With a Grain of Salt” by A. Davis 10-11-1947

“Elder Michaux’s Bull Stolen, Cattle Russtling Charged” 11-19-1949
“RFC Loaned Elder Michaux $3 Million” 03-17-1951

“Name Elder Michaux in Housing Scandal” 10-09-1954
“Thousands Pay Last Respects to Michaux” 11-02-1968

“Legal Battle Develops Over Michaux Estate” 05-17-1969
“Peninsula Group Wants to Revover Land Sold by Church to Federal Government” by L. Colvin 04-29-1998
“Church Leaders Silent About Land Issue” 06-03-1998

Newport News Daily Press
“Evangelist Flock To NN” 09-06-1992
“The Happy Am I Evangelist:”It Was Exciting Going to Church” by K. Baker 02-07-1995
“Williamsburg Heritage: The Happy Am I Preacher” M. Kirby 02-29-2008
“Preacher Redefined The Black Church” 02-27-2012

New York Amsterdam News
“Happy Am I: Millions Listen to Elder Michaux Radio Televangelist” by E. Rouzeau 09-29-1934
“Michaux raps Divine in War” 10-13-1934
“Say Michaux Asks New RFC Loan” 03-17-1951
“9000 to Hear Muhammad In Capitol” 09-16-1961
“The Church World; Michaux Revival” 07-02-1966
“Heirs Get Elder Michaux’s Millions not Church” by G. Barner 05-03-1969

“Lewis Michaux Executor” 09-06-1969
“Whites Lose Bid to Grab Elder Michaux’s Millions” by S. Anekwe 04-14-1973

New York Times
“Elder Solomon Michaux Dies; Cult Leader Aided Roosevelt” 10-21-1968

Philadelphia Tribune

“Life Span Shortened by Bathing, Elder Michaux Advises Local Audience” 09-27-1934
“Michaux Sponsors Housing Project” 12-06-1941
“Elder Michaux’s White VA Housing Project to Honor Rebel General” 08-03-1965
“Elder Michaux Crony of Three Presidents” 11-22-1968

South Florida Sun Sentienal
“Dairy Farm a Living Memorial to Slaves of 400 years Earlier” by M. Ruane May 2014

Washington Post
“Michaux Founds Race Memorial On Site of US Slave Origin” 08-21-1936
“Michaux Meetings to Open on Sunday” 08-22-1955
“18,000 To See Religious Potryal” 9-17-1956
“Michaux – Muslim Debate Today” 09-10-1961
“Pastor Wants Church to Reflect DC Air” by K.Dole 11-06-1961
“DC Proposes to Raze Elder Michaux’s Stores” 09-07-1962
“Prayer Rule Critized By Michaux” 09-29-1962
“Michaux Bids DC to Spare His Stores” 03-17-1963
“Michaux Denied Delay on Market” 03-30-1963
“Michaux to Give and Explaination” 01-03-1965
“Michaux to Note Anniversary” 02-27-1965
“Elder Michaux Plans VA Homes” by H. Gardner 07-26-1965
“Michaux Plans Baptismal Rights” 09-17-1966
“Mary Michaux. Religious Singer” 10-29-1967
“Michaux Sees Some Answers In 2 Negro Housing Projects” by M. Well 06-24-1968
“Elder Lightfoot Solomon Michaux Dies at 84” 10-21-1968
“Elder Michaux to Lie in State” 10-22-1968
“Elder Lightfoot Solomon Michaux, Negro Religious Leader, Dies at 84” by K. Dole 10-21-1968
“3000 To Attend Michaux’s Rites” 10-28-1968
“Memories Bind Tenants of Premier Blak Apartment Complex” by J. Mercer 09-19-1991

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