Black Leadership Analysis

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Confederate Mascot

Ole Miss Shows How To Remove Confederate Symbolism

The University of Mississippi colloquially referred to as “Ole Miss” has a complicated history around race relations. The school nickname is the “Rebels, ” and the old school mascot was a slender southern gentleman that resemble a plantation owner. Ole Miss made national news in the 1960’s when a riot broke out after James Meredith was accepted. Most recently a noose and Confederate flag were placed around the neck of his statue.

At the same time, Ole Miss has stopped the flying of Confederate flags, playing of “Dixie,” and replaced the southern gentleman mascot with a black bear. Ole Miss is showing how to make forward racial progress in a very sensitive racial environment. The process is slow, and many in Mississippi are fighting for their Confederate symbols, but the university presses on. Their method is moving the ball forward without causing a violent backlash.

History of Ole Miss Rebel Mascot and Race

The University of Mississippi was founded in 1848. In the school’s charter, the purpose of the school was to educate the white race. The school’s nickname is Ole Miss, which is also what slaves called the master’s wife. The Civil War broke out in 1861, and the student body did not want the citizens of Mississippi to fight without them. The entire class of 150 men formed Company A of the 11th Mississippi regiment. This troop fought with the army of Northern Virginia and was in some of the most famous battles in the eastern theater. The most famous battle was their last. Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg resulted in the annihilation of the troop. This advance was the furthest the Confederacy got into Union territory. The troop was forever known as the University Greys .

The Ole Miss sports teams had no official name and had been known by many names including the Oxfords, the Mighty Mississippians, and the Southerners. A poll of Mississippi sports writers picked the name “Rebels” in 1936. The mascot “Colonel Reb’ was made after that. Colonel Reb is also an award given to the most distinguished man of campus every year. The female equivalent is “Miss Ole Miss. These traditions started in 1940.

Some say the inspiration for the Ole Miss mascot was a blind peanut vendor named James Ivy. Ivy, known around Ole Miss as “Blind Jim.” He was a fixture at football games for sixty years. An on-the-job accident blinded Jim as a teenager. He found work at Ole Miss selling peanuts after the incident. He was known to scream the loudest at the games and is quoted as saying “He never saw Ole Miss lose a game.” The university honored him with a tombstone and the marching band spelling Jim during a halftime in 1964. [7] The university has never officially connected Blind Jim to the old Mascot. Also, the mascot is white and Jim Ivy was black.

The band first started playing the song “Dixie” in 1948 for the centennial anniversary of the school.[1] The same year the Dixiecrat political party was established. The party was created in response to the executive order to end segregation in the military. The Dixiecrats were officially Democrats, but did not support integration. They were mainly from the South and fought to stop civil rights leaders. They also encouraged the use of Confederate symbols and flew the Confederate battle flag at their national conventions.

In 1962, James Meredith applied and was accepted to the University of Mississippi. However, when the registrar found out about his race, his acceptance was revoked. Meredith was able to sue citing the recent Brown vs. Board case, and a federal order reinstated his admission. When he got to the registrar to sign up for classes the Governor blocked his entrance. A second court order found the Governor in contempt. US Marshals escorted Meredith in the building to register for class.

Once word got out that Meredith had completed registration a violent mob formed on campus. A riot broke out that took 30,000 Federal troops to squelch. The riot left two people dead and three hundred injured. Today there are bullet holes in the student union building from this riot. One of the events that led to the riot were fiery speeches about southern heritage and pride.

The 1970’s were a fascinating time at Ole Miss. In 1975 the first “Colonel Reb” award was given to a black man, Ben Williams. Williams would go on to the NFL after being Ole Miss’s first black football player. The first depiction of Colonel Reb on field or court was in 1979. The mascot would not only perform at Ole Miss games but NBA games as well.

The Colonel Reb mascot has always hurt recruiting at the University of Mississippi. The first attempt to remove the icon happened in 1997. A group of students formed to support Colonel Rebel. The effort led to Ole Miss keeping the mascot. Ole Miss has not won a SEC Championship in football since 1963. Ole Miss has also never won a men’s basketball regular season title.

In 2003, the Associated Student Body Judicial Council decided to retire the Colonel Reb logo. There was a contest to pick a new mascot and a poll for students and faculty to choose a new mascot. The contest and poll got little participation. The school received 2,400 responses from 40,000 eligible to vote. [15] The school was without an official mascot for seven years.

The same year the “Colonel Reb Foundation” (CRF) was formed. In the About Us section of the website, they claim the removal of the mascot was a unilateral decision by the chancellor and athletic director. The student body and faculty did not get a say in the change. Now many Colonel Reb supporters wear a “Colonel Reb is my mascot” sticker on game-days. CRF also propagated the story of Blind Jim to explain the mascot is not racist. However, having to change Blind Jim’s skin color to white and the school not confirming the story is in itself racist.

In 2010, the students, alumni, fans, and faculty chose the Black Bear as the official mascot. It alludes to Ole Miss’s greatest Alumni William Faulkner. Faulkner comprised a short story named “The Bear.” Also, Mississippi has an endangered Black Bear population. The new mascot will raise awareness on the issues of rebuilding the endangered population. Children that go to the game love the bear according to most reports.

Ole Miss Bear

After the reelection of Barack Obama in 2012, a group of 400 students assembled in front of the student union in protest. The crowd lit signs on fire, yelled racial slurs, and two people were arrested. Many have referred to this incident as the “Ole Miss Riot,” however the school has denied it was a riot.

In 2014, Graeme Harris defaced the statue of James Meredith. He placed a noose and the old Georgia state flag that depicted the Confederate flag on the statue. The incident got national attention, and Eric Holder denounced the action. In 2015 Graeme Harris was charged later that year by federal authorities. Harris was a former Ole Miss student.

Plaques were placed on building built by slaves in 2017. The school recognizes its racist history and is making concrete steps to acknowledge it. They also removed the name of a white supremacist governor from a building on campus.

On September 18, 2018, the student body president announced there will be an upcoming vote for a new mascot of a Landshark. The Chancellor of the school Dr. Vitter says the Landshark does not threaten the “Rebels” nickname. The Landsharks originates from defensive football players putting the hand on the forehead after a big play. The Landshark gesture was turned into a mascot that lost to the Bear in the 2003 vote. The Chancellor says the Ole Miss teams will always be referred to as the “Rebels”. The new mascot was announced on October 6, 2017 and will first appear in 2018. The design of the mascot is currently underdevelopment.

How is Ole Miss an example

Ole Miss is working to make concrete steps for racial reconciliation in spite of a complicated history on race. There is racial backlash on campus. However, they never stop working toward making a more inclusive campus. Many other schools and municipalities will go through a similar struggle.

One of the best aspects of this reconciliation is the Col Reb Foundation (CRF). The CRF is providing a constructive, non-violent outlet for people to voice their opinion on the changing of the mascot. Some people will have a deep emotional connection to the old mascot. Transitioning for these people will be difficult and having a support group will prevent these people from acting out.

Ole Miss will never be able to stop individual students from doing despicable things. However, they do support the investigations and convictions are made. There is work on campus to move people past the events. Also, forward racial progress is not stopped by isolated racial incidents.


  1. ”For Ole Miss Sports “Dixie” is dead by A. Ganucheau
  2. ”Controversy Over Mascots at Ole Miss” by R. Brown
  3. Did University of MS students really riot over election results by. J. Kim
  4. Former Ole Miss Student Charged with Placing Noose on. J Meredith Statue by M. Muskal
  5. Meet Blind Jim Ivy by E. Smith
  6. Ole Miss Post Signs to Acknowledge Building Built by Slave Labor by Z. Blay
  7. Oxford Olden Days: Blind Jim Ivy, Honorary Dean of Freshman by J. Mayfield
  8. The University Greys
  9. Integrating Ole Miss: A transformative Deadly Riot by D. Elliot
  10. Riots of the Desegregation of Ole Miss
  11. Ole Miss will be recognizing the campus was built by slaves
  12. Ole Miss should acknowledge its use of slave labor by A. Coon
  13. Our Shared Racist Tradition by T. Abram
  14. Rebel Black Bear Selected as the New On-Field Mascot for Ole Miss Rebels
  15. Ole Miss without a mascot
  16. “About Us”
  17. Ole Miss to vote on Landshark as new Mascot
  18. The Ole Miss Rebels are changing their mascot again, this time from the Black Bear to a Landshark by J. Kirk
  19. Ole Miss names new mascot: Landsharks by D. Royer

Background of UNLV Rebels

Many of the people in this blog work in academia in the United States. Many of these schools have Confederate mascots or Confederate statues. Here are a few examples of schools with Confederate mascots and how they handled them. I will also include my personal opinion on how they handled the situation.

University of Las Vegas Rebels

The current mascot of the UNLV Rebels is “Hey Reb” pictured above. The UNLV’s official stance is the mascot is not connected to the Old South and has not been since the 1970’s after students protested. The UNLV website has the following quote on the name “Rebel”:

”In the 1960’s especially, it [Rebels] symbolized those who rejected convention, tradition, racism…Most of all, in southern Nevada it stood for those who had opposed northern domination in the state legislature and unwanted dependency upon Reno”


The original mascot of the UNLV was the wolf Beauregard clad in a Confederate uniform. Originally, UNLV was called Nevada Southern. The reason the school chose a Confederate mascot was Nevada Southern started as a branch the University of Nevada Reno. Nevada Southern had to declare independence from UNR. They saw themselves as modern day rebels and chose a Confederate motif for their school. To contrast the UNR Wolf Pack, Nevada chose the cartoon wolf in Confederate uniform winking and smirking. The UNLV official website contends that the mascot was not meant to offend, but be a playful jab at the larger school.

The Confederate motif did not stop at sports. The Nevada Southern student government called itself “The Confederate Students of Nevada Southern.” The largest school social event was the “Confederate Cotillion, ” and the school paper was called “Rebel Yell.”

Students began to protest the Confederate motif in the 1970’s. Student athletes that refused to wear the wolf logo led the protests. The students were allowed to vote on the wolf logo and the name “Rebel”in 1971. The students chose to get rid of the wolf but keep the name rebel. The wolf was officially dropped in 1975. In the 1970’s, the school transitioned between the UNLV Sun logo and a colonial soldier logo both pictured below.

In 1983 UNLV, transitioned to its modern day trailblazer. The original logo is below. After a few years, the mascot was named “Hey Reb!”. Over the years the logo has changed, but it always had a gray hat and long mustache.

Many people have been protested recently against “Hey Reb!”. In 2015 two hundred students protested the name. The Charleston killings sparked the protest. Senator Harry Reid also encouraged UNLV to change the name. There was even an internet campaign to replace “Hey Reb!” with Admiral Ackbar from Star Wars Rebel Alliance.

To UNLV’s credit, it is one of the most diverse campuses. A 2015 LA Times article claims it has around 50% minority enrollment. According to the same article all but one member of the undergraduate Black Student Organization supported the mascot. Most of the minorities polled in a recent survey admitted the mascot looked like a Confederate Soldier.

Historically the UNLV was not segregated, and a 1962 Rebel Yell article condemned the University of Mississippi for not integrating. Bill Casey, a black man, played quarterback for the UNLV rebel in 1968. The 1968 team also had the Confederate battle flag on the helmet. Casey said he did not experience any racism on that team.

Nevada’s Civil War and Civil Rights History

Nevada entered the Union in 1864. Of course, it supported the North which was the only way it could gain entry. Lincoln waved the population requirement to ensure there would be enough congressional votes to pass the thirteenth amendment.

Many of Nevada’s original settlers were from the South. There was always fear that Southern sympathizers would try to overthrow Union installation. The Knights of the Golden Circle, a later faction of the KKK, were very active in the area. However, a strong Union troop presence squelched any serious resistance. The part of Nevada that holds Las Vegas was part of Arizona at the time. The Arizona Territory sided with the Confederacy in the Civil War.

Las Vegas has a fraught racial history, and Nevada earned the name “Mississippi of the West.” A 1954 Ebony magazine article claimed the segregation there was as bad as any place in the Deep South. All black people had to stay in the slum of West Las Vegas. There is even a story of a black woman being sent to jail simply because there was nowhere else for her to stay. There were reform efforts but those that supported gambling fought against black people. However, blacks continued to fight and desegregated Casinos in the Moulin Rouge Agreement in 1960.

Justification of the name “Rebels”

Another justification is that the basketball team is known colloquially as the “Runnin’ Rebels.” In the 1980’s the team was dominant in their division, and they were known nationwide as “Runnin’ Rebels.” To change the name would break the basketball history. Also, another name would not have the alliteration and ring.

Personal opinion on if the Mascot should change

The UNLV mascot should be changed to something that can’t be mistaken for Confederate. Even though the official school statement says the mascot is a pathfinder, depictions of his head with only a gray hat would lead a person to believe the mascot is a Confederate soldier. A change as simple as changing the hat to the other school color of crimson and the name to HeyJeb! would be enough to stop any confusion.

Nevada has no official Confederate history. Nevada was part of the Union in the war. The Southern sympathizers in the state were jailed or executed. There is no one from the state they are honoring with the name Rebels.

Given the stereotype or perception that Las Vegas is a racist place, the University must work diligently to fight this misconception. Ultimately, qualified candidates from all minority backgrounds will be turned off by the mascot. It would also make more sense and be more historically accurate to honor the Union troops that fought in the Civil War or some other aspect of Nevada history everyone could celebrate. Ultimately, UNLV and the state of Nevada is bigger than a mascot.

By claiming the mascot is not a Confederate, with the name HeyReb and a gray hat, they are doing the minorities at the school the worst disservice. Some of the most severe psychological trauma happens a person is told what he sees, thinks, and feels is not real. To say that the people that created that mascot did not have it planned the entire time to portray him as a Confederate is silly. The creators of the mascot knew full well that if the mascot only had the hat, he could be seen as a Confederate. It doesn’t matter if the depiction of the entire mascot has him in a red, western-style coat. Most depictions have the mascot in a gray hat with the word Rebel underneath. The insult to black people’s intelligence is doubled when supporters act like the mascot and symbols could not easily be changed.

If the mascot does not change, school officials should expect black and minority students to not support the team unless they are playing and not buy merchandise. I have heard many times in my life that black students have less school pride or patriotism. Situations like the UNLV Rebels, makes black people feel disenfranchised. Once a person feels disenfranchised, they will act out or isolate themselves.

Return to Series

UNLV Rebels

  • Why are the UNLV sports teams represented by a Confederate rebel
  • Hey Reb! And “Rebels Nickname
  • At UNLV, A North-South divide over Rebel Mascot by N.Duara
  • A brief history of our mascot
  • The Curious Case of UNLV’s Not Racist Mascot
  • “Justice is Slow but Sure” by Q. Taylor Nevada Law Journal
  • Has UNLV distanced itself enough from Confederate past?
  • UNLV President says Rebel nickname and mascot should stay by I. Whitaker
  • Why are the UNLV Sports Teams represented by a Confederate mascot
  • What’s in a name: UNLV report on Rebel nickname yields interesting tidbits by I. Whitaker
  • UNLV Rebel Mascot Report Nov 2015 by Rainer Spencer Ph.D.
  • Nevada
  • How the Confederacy claimed Southern Nevada during the Civil War
  • ”Mississippi of the West” in 1954 Magazine’s scathing article turned heads in Las Vegas
  • Civil Rights Act
  • Bert Babero

    Bert Babero led protest to remove the Confederate Wolf Beauregard at UNLV. He recounts the story in this interview. He also talks about his life after college and his views on politics.

    Background on UNLV Mascot

    Interview with Bert Babero

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